Nipple trauma in lactation - literature review
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Department of Surgical Nursing and Propaedeutics of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Corresponding author
Katarzyna Kopcik   

Department of Surgical Nursing and Propaedeutics of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2023;17(3):171-175
Introduction and objective:
Breastfeeding is beneficial for both mother and her newborn. Nipple trauma is a common problem in breastfeeding women. It negatively affects the quality of life of the new mothers and may be a reason for early weaning. The main aim of the paper is to summarize current knowledge about nipple wounds and trauma in lactation, based on recent literature.

Review methods:
A search was undertaken of the PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Wiley databases for articles in English regarding nipple wounds in lactation. Key words “nipple wound lactation”, “nipple wound breastfeeding”, “nipple trauma lactation”, “nipple trauma breastfeeding”, “nipple injury lactation”, “nipple injury breastfeeding”, “nipple candidiasis”, “ankyloglossia breastfeeding” were used. Evaluation was based on the titles of articles, abstracts and full text. Main criteria for including the publications were whether they raised the problem of nipple trauma in lactation.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Breastfeeding is physically and mentally beneficial for both mothers and infants. Pain and damage to the nipple may affect the lactation period negatively and cause early cessation of breastfeeding. Nipple damages that may occur in lactation are cracks and fissures, abscesses, blisters, scabbing, erosion of the tissue or bleeding. Open wounds may also be present.

Awareness, early detection and proper management of nipple trauma occurring in lactation is the key to successful and painless breastfeeding. New mothers should be educated about lactation as a process, breastfeeding techniques regarding both their position and baby positioning, and early symptoms of potential nipple trauma by trained personnel. Choice of treatment is based on the type of nipple trauma.

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