Microcephaly, in addition to craniofacial disproportion, can lead to skeletal muscle dysfunctions in the foetus, hearing and visual alterations, as well as seizures and epilepsy. It is additionally important to note that the oral health of these children can be compromised due to the difficulty in controlling mouth movements and chewing. Children have been taking anticonvulsant drugs to control seizures and epilepsy since the first year of life. But will children with microcephaly who take these drugs long term have oral manifestations from these substances? Could the delay in dental development be related to a possible excess of gingival growth, preventing tooth eruption? Based on these questions, five clinical cases of children with severe microcephaly, aged between seven and eight years in the mixed dentition stage, are presented, focusing on gingival health and dental development.
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