Introduction and objective:
Both autism and vitamin D deficiency are increasingly prevalent among children. Vitamin D is believed to play a key role in many developmental pathways. The aim of this study is to review current knowledge of the relationship between autism spectrum disease and vitamin D deficiency among the paediatric population.

Review methods:
The review was performed using the PubMed and Cochrane database from the last 10 years. The terms ‘autism’ and ‘vitamin D deficiency’ were searched for. There were 15 articles in English on the PubMed database, 14 were included in the review. In the Cochrane database they were 16 position, 9 of which were included in the final analysis.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Typical signs are limited social relations, communication disorder and stereotyped and repetitive behaviours of varying severity. The etiology is still unknown, but nowadays the role of vitamin D deficiency isbeing investigated as a possible risk factor for ASD. There are many scientific reports of the mechanisms of action of vitamin D on the nervous system, as well as on the immune system and all cellular processes, which focus mainly on the regulation of calcium-depending systems, and antioxidant pathways. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and early childhood can significantly affect the developing brain, predisposing to diseases such as autism and schizophrenia.

Further research is still needed to determine the real impact of vitamin D deficiency on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as the possibility of using supplementation as a form of treatment.

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