Introduction and objective:
Biomarkers are measurable biological indicators of many disease states. Particularly noteworthy are short nucleotide sequences involved in the regulation of many cellular processes. Their level in body fluids constitutes an important biological marker of serious diseases, such as cancer or cardiovascular diseases. For example, different types of microRNA may be used as biomarker in virus-associated cancers. The aim of this article was to review the current knowledge on the miRNAs and their role in viral-related cancers (EBV and HPV). The article reviews information available in journals and on electronic databases.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
A significant part of the world’s population hosts at least one of the oncoviruses, but only a small percentage of them undergo a cancerogenesis to which these infectious agents contribute. Interaction between the host cell and viral factors can lead to the origination of a microenvironment favourable to oncogenesis. Cancer arises as a result of dysregulation in many cellular processes, and particularly important are short RNA sequences which regulate the processes that can cause this disease. The varied expression of this ribonucleic acid contributes to many diseases and provides valuable information about health. Importantly, these molecules are differentially expressed in virally-induced cancer. Many publications have confirmed the relationship between the expression of specific types of miRNA and cancers associated with EBV and HPV.

The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of neoplastic diseases associated with EBV and HPV infections may significantly contribute to the reduction of mortality caused by these viruses, and thanks to the development of modern technologies they are an attractive research object

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