Introduction and objective:
Hyperlipidaemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease and currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Several studies have demonstrated the role of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum in improvement of lipid profile and suggest their use as alternative and natural source for prevention / long term management of hyperlipidaemia.

Material and methods:
The study investigates synergetic antihyperlipidemic effects of polyherbal formulation containing T. foenum-graecum seeds and A. sativum buds (ratio 7:3) in Triton-induced acute hyperlipidaemia in rabbits, and compared with standard Atorvastatin. All animals were fed their respective samples orally without any base material for the period of one week. On day 7, blood samples were collected directly from the marginal ear vein of all rabbits before dosing. Immediately after the last dose, Triton WR-1339 (200 mg/kg i.p.) (Tyloxapol) (Sigma-aldrich Corp., USA) in normal saline was injected into all groups. After 24 h of Triton injection, blood samples were again collected from marginal ear vein of all animals for analysis of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.

Seven days pretreatment of polyherbal formulation clearly demonstrated significant anti-hyperlipidaemic effects by showing TC 40.4 (p <0.05*), TG 36.6 (p <0.01**), HDL 25.8 and LDL 10.6 mg/dl (p <0.01**) in comparison with control group that exhibited TC 94.6, TG 812.6, HDL 20 and LDL 91.6 mg/dl lipid values. The standard group also exhibited potent results by showing TC 46, TG 198.6 (p <0.01**), HDL 37.6 (p <0.05*) and LDL 31.6 mg/dl (p <0.05*) values.

The results obtained suggest that the regular use of a moderate amount of T. foenum-graecum and A. sativum in the diet may offer protection against hyperlipidaemia.

Volsky SK, Shalitin S, Fridman E, Yackobovitch-Gavan M, Lazar L, Bello R, Oron T, Tenenbaum A, de Vries L, Lebenthal Y. Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes: A single-center experience. World J Diabetes. 2021;12(1):56–68.
Abdou HM, Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef and Alsayeda Alsayed Newairy. Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidaemia, DNA fragmentation, neurotransmitters inhibition, oxidative damage, histopathological and morphometric changes: the protective role of soybean oil. J Basic Applied Zool. 2018;79:1–12.
Palabiyik E, Seda Askin, Hakan Askin. Effect of Walnut Seed Skin against main organ damage caused by hyperlipidaemia. Eur J Sci Technol. 2022;34:652–656.
Vohra K, Gupta VK, Dureja H, Garg V. Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Lens culinaris Medikus Seeds in Triton WR-1339 Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats. J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 2. 2016;117:1–7.
Bernardini S, Tiezzi A, Masci VL, Ovidi E. Natural products for human health: an historical overview of the drug discovery approaches. Natural Product Res. 2018;32(16):1926–1950.
Goyal S, Gupta N, Chatterjee S. Investigating Therapeutic Potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. as Our Defense Mechanism against Several Human Diseases. J Toxicol. 2016;2016:1–10.
Mahmooda MN, Yahya IK. Nutrient and Phytochemical of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum graecum) Seeds. Intern J Sci Basic Appl Res. (IJSBAR). 2017;36(3):203–213.
Lohvina H, Sándor M, Wink M. Effect of Ethanol Solvents on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties of Seed Extracts of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Varieties and Determination of Phenolic Composition by HPLC-ESI-MS. Diversity. 2022; 14(7):1–21.
Kassaee SM, Goodarzi MT, Kassaee SN. Ameliorative effect of Trigonella foenum graecum l. on lipid profile, liver histology and ldl-receptor gene expression in high cholesterol-fed hamsters. Acta Endocrinol. (Buc). 2021;27(1):7–13.
Naqulapalli Venkata KC, Swaroop A, Bagsh D, Bishayee A. A small plant with big benefits: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) For disease prevention and health promotion. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017;61(6):1–26.
Malik A, Mehmood MH, Akhtar MS, Haider G, Gilani AH. Studies on antihyperlipidemic and endothelium modulatory activities of polyherbal formulation (POL4) and its ingredients in high-fat diet rats. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017;30(1):295–301.
Kalyan C. Venkata N, Swaroop A, Bagchi D, Bishayee A. 201600950REVIEWA small plant with big benefits: Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecumLinn.) for disease prevention and health promotion. Mol Nut Food Res. 2017;61(6):2–26.
Shreya J, Swati P, Jyothi G and Vijay Danapur. Preliminary Phytochemical and Pharmacognostic Studies on a Well Known Medicinal Plant Trigonella foenum-graecum. Int J Pharmacogn Chinese Med. 2019; 3(4): 1–7.
Vandana Singh, Ramesh Kumar. Study of Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Allium sativum of Bundelkhand Region. Int J Life Sci Scienti Res. 2017;3(6):1451–1458.
Jafari S, Farokhi F, Sadeghi A. Comparative effects of garlic (Allium sativum) powder and atorvastatin in female reproductive system of hypercholesterolemic rats: A histological and biochemical evaluation. J Shahrekord University Med Sci. 2021;23(3):131–138.
Narkhede RR, Rahul D, Pise AV, Kumar P, Singh I, Kalegaonkar S. The Study of Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Allium Sativum in Rats Induced With Hyperlipidaemia Using Fat Rich Diet. J Pharamac Sci Drug Devel. 2020;2(4):001–004.
Asgharpour M, Khavandegar A, Balaei P, Enayati N, Mardi P, Alirezaei A, Bakhtiyari M. Efficacy of Oral Administration of Allium sativum Powder “Garlic Extract” on Lipid Profile, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Indices among Hemodialysis Patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2021;17:6667453.
Aparna P, Desu BSR. Assessment of Anti-Hyperlipidemic activity of a Polyherbal Formulation Ba019. Inter J Modern Pharm Res. 2020;4:37–39.
Kaur P, Robin, Mehta RG, Singh B, Arora S. Development of aqueous-based multiherbal combination using principal component analysis and its functional significance in HepG2 cells. BMC Comp Alternative Med. 2019;19(18):3–17.
Jash R, Bagchi C, Mitra A, Tripathi SK. Evaluation of antihyperlipidemic activity of gugulipid alone and in combination with different dosage of atorvastatin in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rodent model: Exploring a possible synergistic activity Nat J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2022;12(03):289–295.
Abdelgadir AA, Hassan HM, Eltaher AM, Khnsaa Mohammed GA, Lamya Mohammed AA, Hago TB, Aboalbashar TH, Aalim TH, M Ahmed A, Mohamed AK. Hypolipidemic Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Bark Ethanolic Extract on Triton X-100 induced Hyperlipidaemia in Albino Rats. Med Aromat Plants (Los Angeles). 2020;9:1–6.
Mooventhan A, Nivethitha L. Narrative Review on Evidence-based Antidiabetic Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) Inter J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis. 2017;7(4):84–87.
Berberich AJ, Hegele RA, A Modern Approach to Dyslipidemia. Endocrine Rev. 2022;43(4):611–653.
Heshmat-Ghahdarijani K, Mashayekhias N, Amerizadeh A, Jervekani ZT, Sadeghi M. Effect of fenugreek consumption on serum lipid profile: Asystematic review and meta-analysis. Phytotherapy Research. 2020;34:2230–2245.
Shaikh RF, Ali MT, Mohsin AA, Hiware SD, Ahmad A, Daimi SRH, Moizuddin K, Shaikh SA, Siddiqui FB. A Comparative Study on Clinical Evaluation of the Hypolipidemic Effects of Allium sativum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Commiphora mukul, Picrorhiza kurroa, and Piper nigrum: A Pilot Study. Cureus. 2022;14(7):e26597. doi: 10.7759/cureus.26597.
Lu Y, He Z, Shen X, Xu X, Fan J, Wu S, Zhang D. Cholesterol-lowering effect of allicin on hypercholesterolemic ICR mice. Oxidative Med Cellular Longevity. 2012;2012:1–6.
Mukthamba P, Srinivasan K. Protective effect of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) on induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;27(1):39–47.
Sil S, Roy UK, Biswas S, Mandal P, Pal K. A Study To Compare Hypolipidemic Effects Of Allium Sativum (Garlic) alone and in combination with Atorvastatin Or Ezetimibe in experimental model. Ser J Exp Clin Res. 2020;22(1):11–19.
Elmahdi B, Khalil MM, Abulgasim AI. The Effect of Fresh Crushed Garlic Bulbs (Allium sativum) on Plasma Lipids in Hypercholesterolemic Rats. J Animal Vet Sci. 2008;3:15–19.
Aouadi R, Aouidet A, Elkadhi A, Rayana MCB, Jaafoura H, Tritar B, Nagati K. Effect of fresh garlic on lipid metabolism in male rats. Nutr Res. 2000;20(2):273–280.
Ghaisas M M, Kadam AH, Kshirsagar BD, Dhote VV, Deshpande AD. Evaluation of Antihyperlipidemic activity of Mimusops elengi L. in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidaemia in rats. J Natural Remedies. 2008;8:132–137.
Srinivasan K, Sambaiah K, Chandrasekhara N. A Review on Promising Natural Agents Effective on Hyperlipidaemia. Spices as beneficial hypolipidemic food adjuncts: a review. Food Rev Int. 2004;20:187–220.
Moorthy R, Prabhu KM, Murthy PS. Anti-hyperglycemic compound (GII) from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum linn.) seeds, its purification and effect in diabetes mellitus. Ind J Exp Biol. 2010;48(11):1111–1118.
Yeh YY, Liu L. Cholesterol-lowering effect of gar-lic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and an-imal studies. J Nutr. 2001;131(3):989–93.
Nazir I. Chauhan RS. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of Allium sativum (Garlic) and Curcuma longa (Turmeric). J Entomol Zoology Studies. 2019;7(1):545–547.
Kiprop K, Muthangya M, Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of Allium sativumAgainst Lactobacillus. Inter J Sci Basic Appl Res. 2021;60(1):172–180.
Kumari S, Rao NB, Gajula RG. Phytochemical analysis and anti-microbial activity of Trigonella foenumgracum (Methi seeds). J Med Plants Stud. 2016;4(4):278–281.
Mukthamba P, Srinivasan K. Hypolipidemic influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental myocardial infarction. Food Funct. 2015;6(9):3117–25.