Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive, rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). This lymphoma is characterized by the expansion of mature B cells which spread in the bone marrow, blood, lymphatic tissues and extranodal sites. Due to limited treatment options, it is one of the most complex neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid system. The typical age of onset is 60–70 years. Occasionally, tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) can occur due to the cancer cells breaking-down too quickly. Thesudden, intense breakdown of the cancer cells releases large amounts of potassium, purines and phosphates. In the clinical case described by the authors, the patient was diagnosed with MCL in the generalized CS III stage. The patient additionally developed TLS. Previously, the patient had been treated with rituximab at the Department of Haematooncology, and due to respiratory and renal failure, was subsequently admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the University Hospital in Lublin.
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