Introduction and objective:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disorder that makes breathing difficult, characterized by chronic bronchitis, mucus hypersecretion, airway remodelling, and emphysema. Although caused by various factors, the leading cause is active or passive cigarette smoking (CS) is. The treatment available provides symptomatic relief and is associated with serious adverse effects, such as cardiovascular events and pneumonia; hence, there is an unmet need for research on drug treatment for COPD. This literature review provides an update on the various animal models of COPD that have been developed by the exposure of CS alone, or in combination with other inducing agents.

Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge:
The combination of SCS/MCS with LPS should be preferred to a single smoke component to induce COPD. It was observed that mouse models are extensively used, C57B1/6 and BALB/c females are more vulnerable to COPD, whereas, in rat models, male SD rats are mostly used. Guinea pigs, due to their anatomical similarity, are found to be a better model that can be used to develop COPD.

Suitable animal models and validated apparatus are crucial for successful COPD animal model development. Conventionally authenticated research-grade cigarettes should be used for effortless distribution of a specific concentration of total suspended particles (TSP) or total particulate matter (TPM), including nicotine and carbon monoxide. There is also a need to focus on the various types of apparatus to be used for COPD induction in murine models considering optimum exposure, reliability as well as the sturdiness of the apparatus which would provide better execution of the protocol with minimum harm to the experimenter.

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