REVIEW PAPER
SARS-CoV-2 infection – spread and pathogenicity
 
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Department of Preclinical Conservative Dentistry and Preclinical Endodontics, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Anna Szkaradkiewicz-Karpińska   

Department of Preclinical Conservative Dentistry and Preclinical Endodontics, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
 
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2020;14(2):49–51
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ABSTRACT
In December 2019, a new disease, similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), was reported in Wuhan, China. It was quickly indicated that the causative agent of this new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a previously unknown coronavirus, now called SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The result of the global outbreak of COVID-19 in the world (currently COVID-19 is present on all continents, except Antarctica) is the pandemic status 2019–2020, as declared by the WHO and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).The virus has a high epidemic potential and is effectively transmitted between humans. The primary route for SARS-CoV-2 infection to spread is air-droplet transmission. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through direct contact with an infected person, or indirectly via coronavirus-contaminated materials or objects. Current data also indicate the possibility of an alternative route of SARS-CoV-2 infection – through the gastrointestinal tract. The article discusses various SARS-CoV-2 transmission options, with particular attention paid to the role of saliva and gastrointestinal tract in the spreading of the virus. Current data on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity and clinical symptoms of COVID-19 are also analyzed. Expanding knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in terms of its spread, will contribute to further actions aimed at preventing transmission of this pathogen.
 
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