Introduction and objective:
In recent years, cases of secondary glomerulonephritis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA-GN) have been reported following COVID-19 infection or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The aim of the study was to analyze publications related to this issue and to highlight both the benefits of vaccination and the potential for secondary immune responses to both infection and vaccination against COVID-19.

Review methods:
A literature review was conducted on sources available up to December 2023, utilizing databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. The analysis included cases of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) following SARS-CoV-2 infection and after COVID-19 vaccination

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is an inflammation of small and medium vessels affecting all systems, including the kidneys. Various causes contribute to the development of AAV, including pathogenic microorganisms and individual abnormal reactions to vaccinations, which can lead to autoimmunization. Since the Covid-19 pandemic, cases of ANCA-GN have been observed in patients without prior autoimmune diseases. The rapid progression of the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant acceleration in the development of dedicated vaccines, thereby preventing a considerable number of deaths caused by the infection.

ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis post COVID-19 can be linked to both infection and vaccination, which may act as triggers for autoimmune responses. These mechanisms require further investigation. Vaccine-induced ANCA-GN following COVID-19 vaccination is rare, and vaccinations represent an appropriate strategy to combat this disease.

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