The influence of poisoning with patulin on activity of acid phosphatase, cathepsin B and D in mice kidneys and livers
More details
Hide details
Chair and Department of Hygiene, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Provincial Unified Hospital, Swiętokrzyskie Cardiology Centre, Kielce, Poland
Corresponding author
Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka   

Medical University of Lublin, Radziwiłłowska 11, 20-080, Lublin, Poland
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2020;14(3):94-97
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of moulds, for instance, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys, and found most often in rotten apples. Previous studies showed toxic effects of patulin in the gastro-intestinal tract, impairment of kidney function, as well as neurotoxicity.

The aim of the study was to investigate whether intoxication with patulin affects the activity of acid phosphatase, cathepsin B and D in mice kidneys and livers.

Material and methods:
method. Experiments were conducted on 36 female mice. Animals were divided into 6 groups of 6: 1 – control, 2 – received 0.1 LD50 patulin i.p. 28 days, 3 – saline i.p. once, 4 – patulin i.p. 0.1 LD50 once, 5 patulin i.p. 0.2 LD50 once, 6 – patulin i.p. 0.5 LD50 once. 6 hours after patulin or saline administration, animals from groups 3, 4, 5, 6 were sacrificed. Kidneys and livers were obtained. Animals from groups 1 and 2 were sacrificed on day 29. Acid phosphatase activity was measured in the tissue supernatants with colorimetric method. Cathepsin B and D activities were determined with an ELISA-kit.

The activities of acid phosphatase, cathepsin B and D in the kidneys and livers of mice exposed to patulin for 28 days was higher than in controls. A proportionate increase in acid phosphatase and cathepsin B activity in the kidneys and livers was observed for a single dose of the xenobiotic.

Acute and subacute poisoning with patulin negatively affects the functioning of lysosomes and induces an increase in the activity of lysosomal enzymes in mice livers and kidneys. Activities of acid phosphatase and selected cathepsins in the livers and kidneys are markers of cell damage due to patulin’s toxicity.

Borzęcki A, Nieradko-Iwanicka B, Mikocka J. The influence of poisoning with patulin on activity of acid phosphatase, cathepsin B and D in mice kidneys and livers. J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2020; 14(3): 94–97. 10.26444/jpccr/126833
Alam S, Pal A, Kumar R, et al. EGFR-mediated Akt and MAPKs signal pathways play a crucial role in patulin-induced cell proliferation in primary murine keratinocytes via modulation of Cyclin D1 and COX-2 expression. Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(12): 988–98.
Monteillier A, Allard PM, Gindro K, et al. Lung Cancer Chemopreventive Activity of Patulin Isolated from Penicillium vulpinum. Molecules. 2018; 23(3): 636–648.
Al-Hazmi MA. Patulin in apple juice and its risk assessments on albino mice. Toxicol Industrial Health. 2014; 30(6): 534–545.
Tsai WT, Lo YC, Wu MS, et al. Mycotoxin Patulin Suppresses Innate Immune Responses by Mitochondrial Dysfunction and p62/ Sequestosome-1-dependent Mitophagy. J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(37): 19299–311.
Piqué E, Vargas-Murga L, Gómez-Catalán J, et al. Occurrence of patulin in organic and conventional apple juice. Risk assessment. Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences III, 2013: 131–144. ISBN: 978- 81-7895-605-3 Eds: Muñoz-Torrero D, Cortés A, Mariño E. Transworld Research Network 37/661 (2), Fort P.O. Trivandrum-695 023 Kerala, India.
Zhong L, Carere J, Lu Z, et al. Patulin in Apples and Apple-Based Food Products: The Burdens and the Mitigation Strategies. Toxins (Basel). 2018; 10(11): 475–505.
Wouters FA, Speijers GJA. JECFA Monograph on Patulin. World Health Organization Food Additives. 2012 Series 35.
Alshannaq A, Yu JH. Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017; 14(6): 632–652.
Pal S, Singh N, Ansari KM. Toxicological effects of patulin mycotoxin on the mammalian system: an overview. Toxicol Res (Camb). 2017; 6(6): 764–771.
Medical Research Council. Clinical trial of patulin in the common cold. Lancet 1944; ii: 373–375.
Muniyan S, Chaturvedi NK, Dwyer JG, et al. Human prostatic acid phosphatase: structure, function and regulation. Int J Mol Sci. 2013; 14(5): 10438–64.
Cabukusta B, Neefjes J. Mechanisms of lysosomal positioning and movement. Traffic. 2018; 19(10): 761–769.
Vaithilingam A, Lai NY, Duong E, et al. A simple methodology to assess endolysosomal protease activity involved in antigen processing in human primary cells. BMC Cell Biol. 2013; 14: 35–46.
Turk V, Stoka V, Vasiljeva O, et al. Cysteine cathepsins: From structure, function and regulation to new frontiers. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2012; 1824: 68–88.
Bossowska-Nowicka M, Toka F, Mielcarska M, et al. Cathepsins: innate immune proteases that regulate viral entry into host cells. Postępy Hig Med Dośw (online). 2018; 72: 253–263.
Wang J, Ni P, Chen C, et al. Colorimetric determination of the activity of alkaline phosphatase by exploiting the oxidase-like activity of palladium cube@CeO2 core-shell nanoparticles. Mikrochimica Acta. 2020; 187(2): 115.
Saleh I, Goktepe I. The characteristics, occurrence, and toxicological effects of patulin. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2019; 129: 301–311.
Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB).PATULIN. https://pubchem. on June 1 2020).
de Melo FT, de Oliveira IM, Greggio S, Dacosta JC, Guecheva TN, Saffi J, Henriques JA, Rosa RM. DNA damage in organs of mice treated acutely with patulin, a known mycotoxin. Food Chem Toxicol.2012; 50: 3548–3555.
Jayashree GV, Krupashree K, Rachitha P, et al. Patulin induced oxidative stress mediated apoptotic damage in mice, and its modulation by green tea leaves. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2017; 7(2): 127–134.
Berthiller F, Crews C, Dall’Asta C, et al. Masked mycotoxins: a review. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013; 57(1): 165–86.
Lu S, Liu S, et al. Combination of patulin and chlorpyrifos synergistically induces hepatotoxicity via inhibition of catalase activity and generation of reactive oxygen species. J Agric Food Chem. 2019.
Jin H, Yin S, Song X, et al. Hu H. P53 activation contributes to patulin- induced nephrotoxicity via modulation of reactive oxygen species generation. Sci Rep. 2016; Article number 24455.
Rahman RMA, van Schaijik B, Brasch HD, et al. Expression of Cathepsins B, D, and G in WHO Grade I Meningioma. Front Surg. 2019;6:6. doi: 10.3389/fsurg.2019.00006. eCollection 2019.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top