Introduction and objective:
Hyperdontia is a dental developmental anomaly in which supernumerary teeth exist. These are extra teeth to the normal set of primary or permanent dentitions. This article reviews the current literature on hyperdontia in the permanent dentition.

Material and Methods:
A thorough literature search was carried out using Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. Results were reviewed, prioritized, and findings compiled. The key words of the search strategy were: prevalence, case reports, supernumerary, supplemental, distomolars, forth molars, paramolars, parapremolars, mesiodens, and supernumerary lateral incisors. Only articles in English published in peer-reviewed journals were included.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
The prevalence of supernumerary teeth varies between and within different populations. They may cause various aesthetic, occlusal, and functional complications and often require an interdisciplinary intervention. Familiarity with such anomalies is essential for the dental practitioner. Recognition and correct identification of the anomaly is important when communicating with other dental team members, especially in the case of a referral to or from another dental office. Moreover, understanding the anomaly is an important factor in determining the course of treatment, if any.

It is hoped that this review will provide dental practitioners with an update on the classification, characteristics, and prevalence figures for each type of supernumerary tooth.

Arandi NZ. Hyperdontia: Exploring the Developmental Abnormality. J Pre-Clin Clin Res. 2020; 14(4): 178–183. doi: 10.26444/jpccr/130372
Arandi NZ, Abu-Ali A, Mustafa S. Supernumerary Teeth: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study from Palestine. Pesqui Bras Odontopediatria Clin Integr. 2020; 20: 1–9.
Mallineni SK, Kumar S. Supernumerary Teeth: Review of the Literature with Recent Updates. Conf Pap Sci. 2014; 2014: 1–6.
Fekonja A. Prevalence of dental developmental anomalies of permanent teeth in children and their influence on esthetics. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2017; 29(4): 276 –83.
Laganà G, Venza N, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Fabi F, Danesi C, Cozza P. Dental anomalies: Prevalence and associations between them in a large sample of non-orthodontic subjects, a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health. 2017; 17(1): 1–7.
Shokri A, Poorolajal J, Khajeh S, Faramarzi F, Kahnamoui HM. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012–2013 as observed using panoramic radiographs. Imaging Sci Dent. 2014; 44(1): 7.
Hagiwara Y, Uehara T, Narita T, Tsutsumi H, Nakabayashi S, Araki M. Prevalence and distribution of anomalies of permanent dentition in 9584 Japanese high school students. Odontology. 2016; 104(3): 380–9.
Vani NV, Saleh SM, Tubaigy FM, Idris AM. Prevalence of developmental dental anomalies among adult population of Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Dent Res. 2016; 7(1): 29–33.
Arikan V, Ozgul BM, Oz FT. Prevalence and Characterıstıcs of Supernumerary Teeth in a Child Population from Central Anatolıa – Turkey. Oral Heal Dent Manag. 2013; 12(4): 2–5.
Burhan AS, Nawaya FR, Arabi Katbi ME, Al-Jawabra AS. Prevalence of supernumerary teeth in a nonsyndromic Syrian sample. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2015; 90(4): 146–9.
Dobles NJ, Meza RS. Prevalence of supernumerary teeth in a mexican sample. Rev Mex Ortod. 2015; 3(2): e88–91.
Celikoglu M, Kamak H, Oktay H. Prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a non-syndrome Turkish population: Associated pathologies and proposed treatment. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010; 15(4): 4–7.
Singh VP, Sharma A, Sharma S. Supernumerary Teeth in Nepalese Children. Sci World J. 2014; 2014.
Mossaz J, Kloukos D, Pandis N, Suter VGA, Katsaros C, Bornstein MM. Morphologic characteristics, location, and associated complications of maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth as evaluated using cone beam computed tomography. Eur J Orthod. 2014; 36(6): 708–18.
Subasioglu A, Savas S, Kucukyilmaz E, Kesim S, Yagci A, Dundar M. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth. Eur J Dent. 2015; 9(1): 153–8.
Khambete N, Kumar R. Genetics and presence of non-syndromic supernumerary teeth: A mystery case report and review of literature. Contemp Clin Dent. 2012; 3(4): 499–502.
Cammarata-scalisi F, Avendano A, Callea M. Main genetic entities associated with supernumerary teeth. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2018; 116(6): 437–43.
Arandi NZ. Non-syndromic Supernumerary Premolars, a Literature Review and a Report of Two Cases. Int J oral care Res. 2019; 6: 44–8.
Khalaf K, Al Shehadat S, Murray CA. A Review of Supernumerary Teeth in the Premolar Region. Int J Dent. 2018; 2018: 1–5.
Sarne O, Shapira Y, Blumer S, Finkelstein T, Naomi S, Nir B. Super-numerary Teeth in the Maxillary Anterior Region: The Dilemma of Early Versus Late Surgical Intervention. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2018; 42(1): 54–60.
Gunduz K, Celenk P, Zengin Z, Sumer P. Mesiodens: a radiographic study in children. J Oral Sci. 2008; 50(3): 287–91.
Kazanci F, Celikoglu M, Miloglu O, Yildirim H, Ceylan I. Short Communication The Frequency and Characteristics of Mesiodens in a. Eur J Dent. 2011; 5(July): 361–5.
Altan H, Akkoc S, Altan A. Radiographic characteristics of mesiodens in a non-syndromic pediatric population in the Black Sea region. J Investig Clin Dent. 2018; (September): e12377.
Tyrologou S, Koch G, Kurol J. Location, complications and treatment of mesiodentes – A retrospective study in children. Swed Dent J. 2005; 29 (1): 1–9.
Lara TS, Lancia M, Silva Filho OG da, Garib DG, Ozawa TO. Prevalence of mesiodens in orthodontic patients with deciduous and mixed dentition and its association with other dental anomalies. Dental Press J Orthod. 2013; 18(6): 93–9.
Anibor E, Mabiaku Y, Inikoro C. Prevalence of Supernumerary Teeth in a Nigerian Population. Int J Forensic Med Invest. 2015; 1(1): 7–9.
Öztaş B, Bardak Ç, Kurşun EŞ, Akbulut N. Clinical characteristics of non-syndromic supernumerary teeth in a cohort of Turkish patients. Oral Radiol. 2011; 27(2): 108–13.
Erdem AP, Ak G. The prevelance of mesiodens in a group of non-syndromic Turkish children: a radiographic study. 2018; 52(June 2017): 162– 6.
Asaumi J, Shibata Y, Yanagi Y, Hisatomi M, Matsuzaki H, Konouchi H, et al. Radiographic examination of mesiodens and their associated complications. Dentomaxillofacial Radiol. 2004; 33(2): 125–7.
Altan H, Akkoc S, Altan A. Radiographic characteristics of mesiodens in a non-syndromic pediatric population in the Black Sea region. J Investig Clin Dent. 2018; (September): e12378.
Fernández Montenegro P, Valmaseda Castellón E, Berini Aytés L, Gay Escoda C. Retrospective study of 145 supernumerary teeth. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006; 11(4): E339–44.
Villavicencio J, Hernandez J, Medina S. Clinical Variations of Double Mesiodens: A Review and Case Report. Rev Fac Odontol Univ Antioquia. 2015; 27(1): 216–27.
Hyun H-K, Lee S-J, Lee S-H, Hahn S-H, Kim J-W. Clinical Characteristics and Complications Associated With Mesiodentes. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009; 67(12): 2639–43.
Khandelwal P, Rai AB, Bulgannawar B, Hajira N, Masih A, Jyani A. Prevalence, characteristics, and morphology of supernumerary teeth among patients visiting a dental institution in Rajasthan. Contemp Clin Dent. 2018; 9(3): 349–56.
Zhao L, Liu S, Zhang R, Yang R, Zhang K, Xie X. Analysis of the distribution of supernumerary teeth and the characteristics of mesiodens in Bengbu, China: a retrospective study. Oral Radiol. 2020; (0123456789): 3–8.
Vecchione Gurgel C, Soares Cota AL, Yuriko Kobayashi T, Moura Bonifácio Silva S, Aparecida Andrade Moreira Machado M, Rios D, et al. Bilateral Mesiodens in Monozygotic Twins: 3D Diagnostic and Management. Case Rep Dent. 2013; 2013: 1–5.
Wedrychowska-Szulc B, Janiszewska-Olszowska J. The supernumerary lateral incisors-morphology and concomitant abnormalities. Ann Acad Stetin. 2007; 53(3): 107–13.
Amini F. Prevalence and Pattern of Accessory Teeth (Hyperdontia) in Permanent Dentition of Iranian Orthodontic Patients. Iran J Public Health. 2013; 42(11): 1259–65.
Esenlik E, Sayin MÖ, Atilla AO, Özen T, Altun C, Başak F. Supernumerary teeth in a Turkish population. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2009; 136(6): 848–52.
Gupta S, Praveen Kumar P. A Study on Prevalence, Complications, and Possible Etiologic Factors of Supernumerary Teeth in 6–12-year-old Schoolchildren of Rohtak, India. Indian J Dent Sci. 2019; 11(2): 10–3.
Hekmatfar S, Badkash S, Jafari K. Bilateral supernumerary maxillary lateral incisors: A rare case report. J Oral Heal Oral Epidimiology. 2015; 4(1): 46–50.
Andrei OC, Farcaşiu C, Mărgărit R, Dinescu MI, Tănăsescu LA, Dăguci L, et al. Unilateral supplemental maxillary lateral incisor: report of three rare cases and literature review. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2019; 60(3): 947–53.
Cristina BD, Bratu E, Mariana P, Popa G, Silvia P. The Prevalence of Supernumerary Teeth in a Group of Patients in Western Romania. Acta Marisiensis Ser Medica. 2012; 57(6): 581–4.
Bereket C, Çakir-Özkan N, Şener I, Bulut E, Baştan A. Analyses of 1100 supernumerary teeth in a nonsyndromic Turkish population: A retrospective multicenter study. Niger J Clin Pract. 2015; 18(6): 731–8.
Jiang Y, Ma X, Wu Y, Li J, Li Z, Wang Y, et al. Epidemiological, clinical, and 3-dimentional CBCT radiographic characterizations of supernumerary teeth in a non-syndromic adult population: a single-institutional study from 60,104 Chinese subjects. Clin Oral Investig. 2020; X(X): X.
De Oliveira Gomes C, Drummond SN, Jham BC, Abdo EN, Mesquita RA. A survey of 460 supernumerary teeth in Brazilian children and adolescents. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008; 18(2): 98–106.
Cortés-Bretón-Brinkmann J, Martínez-Rodríguez N, Barona-Dorado C, Martín-Ares M, Sanz-Alonso J, Suárez-García MJ, et al. Clinical repercussions and epidemiological considerations of supernumerary canines: A 26 case series. Med Oral Patol Oral y Cir Bucal. 2019; 24(5): e615–20.
Leco Berrocal MI, Martín Morales JF, Martínez González JM. An observational study of the frequency of supernumerary teeth in a population of 2000 patients. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007; 12(2): 134–8.
Paduano S, Rongo R, Lucchese A, Aiello D, Michelotti A, Grippaudo C. Case Report Late-Developing Supernumerary Premolars: Analysis of Different Therapeutic Approaches. Case Rep Dent. 2016; 2016(1): 1–8.
Chou ST, Chang HP, Yang YH, Lung CY, Tseng YC, Pan CY, et al. Characteristics of supernumerary teeth among nonsyndromic dental patients. J Dent Sci. 2015; 10(2): 133–8.
Küchler EC, Costa AG Da, Costa MDC, Vieira AR, Granjeiro JM. Supernumerary teeth vary depending on gender. Braz Oral Res. 2011; 25(1): 76–9.
Kaya G-Ş, Yapıcı G, Ömezli M-M, Dayı E. Non-syndromic supernumerary premolars. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011; 16(4): e522–5.
Harris EF, Clark LL. An epidemiological study of hyperdontia in American blacks and whites. Angle Orthod. 2008; 78(3): 460–5.
Mahabob MN, Anbuselvan GJ, Kumar BS, Raja S, Kothari S. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2012; 4(Suppl 2): S373–5.
Durmuslar M, Misir A, Demiriz L. Prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth: A survey on 7348 people. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2015; 5(7): 39.
O’Dowling I. Supernumerary pre-molar teeth in the mandible. J Ir Dent Assoc. 2009; 55(6): 293–5.
Kara MI, Aktan AM, Ay S, Bereket C, Şener I, Bülbül M, et al. Characteristics of 351 supernumerary molar teeth in Turkish population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012; 17(3): 1–6.
Brinkmann JC, María NM. Epidemiological Features and Clinical Repercussions of Supernumerary Teeth in a Multicenter Study: A Review of 518 Patients with Hyperdontia in Spanish Population. Eur J Dent. 2020; X(X): 1–8.
Kaya E, Gungor K, Demirel O, Ozge O. Prevalence and characteristics of non-syndromic distomolars: a retrospective study. J Investig Clin Dent. 2015; 6(4): 282–6.
Kurt H, Suer TB, Senel B, Avsever H. A retrospective observational study of the frequency of distomolar teeth in a population. Cumhur Dent J. 2015; 18(4): 335–42.
Arslan A, Altundal H, Ozel E. The frequency of distomolar teeth in a population of urban Turkish adults: A retrospective study. Oral Radiol. 2009; 25(2): 118–22.
Thomas SA, Sherubin E, Pillai KS. A Study on the Prevalence and Characteristics of Distomolars among 1000 Panoramic Radiographs. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol. 2013; 25(September): 169–72.
Cassetta M, Altieri F, Giansanti M, Di-Giorgio R, Calasso S. Morphological and topographical characteristics of posterior supernumerary molar teeth: An epidemiological study on 25,186 subjects. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2014; 19(6): e545–9.
Bamgbose BO, Okada S, Hisatomi M, Yanagi Y, Takeshita Y, Abdu ZS, et al. Fourth molar: A retrospective study and literature review of a rare clinical entity. Imaging Sci Dent. 2019; 49: 27–34.
Cholakova R. Clinical and Epidemiological Study of supernumerary teeth in patients from plovdiv region. Acta Medica Bulg. 2020; XLVII(2): 22–6.
Arandi NZ. Distomolars: An overview and 3 case reports. Dent Oral Craniofacial Res. 2017; 4(1): 1–3.
Gopakumar D, Thomas J, Ranimol P, Vineet DA, Thomas S, Nair VV. Prevalence of supernumerary teeth in permanent dentition among patients attending a dental college in South Kerala: A pilot study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol. 2014; 26(1): 15–8.
Mitsea A, Vardas E, Papachatzopoulou A, Kalfountzos G, Leventis M, Tsiklakis K. The frequency of non-syndromic distomolar teeth in a Greek population sample? J Clin Exp Dent. 2015; 7(5): 589–94.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top