Erythrocyte sedimentation rate – an old marker with new applications
More details
Hide details
Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Corresponding author
Krzysztof Bochen   

Departament of Internal Medicine, Medical University, Lublin, Poland. Staszica 16, 20-081 Lublin, Poland.
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2011;5(2):50-55
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is an inexpensive and simple test for evaluating the inflammatory or acute response. The ESR is a useful test in clinical practice as an indicator of inflammation, infection, trauma or malignant disease. The ESR can also be an important prognostic factor in non-inflammatory conditions, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and prostate cancer. There are several methods for measuring the ESR, but the International Committee on Standarization in Hematology Reference Procedure accepts the Westergren method developed in the early 20th century. The aim of this work is to describe and evaluate the possible application of the ESR in modern clinical practice. In conclusion, the ESR evaluation, as a cheap method, may be a good alternative to newer and more expensive methods like C-reactive protein (CRP) determination.
Wolfe F, Pincus T. Th e level of infl ammation in rheumatoid arthritis is determined early and remains stable over the longterm course of the illness. J Rheumatol 2001;28:1817-1824.
Smith EM, Samadian S. Use of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the elderly. Br J Hosp Med 1994;51:394-397.
Olshaker JS, Jerrard DA. Th e erythrocyte sedimentation rate. J Em Med 1997;15(6):869-874.
Caswell M, Pike LA, Bull BS. Eff ect of patient age on tests of the acutephase response. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1993;117:906-910.
International Council for Standardization in Haematology (Expert Panel on Blood Rheology): ICSH recommendations for measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. J Clin Pathol 1993;46:198-208.
Sox HC, Liang MH. Th e erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Ann Intern Med 1986;4:515-523.
Ballou SP, Kushner I, Kelly W, Harris E, Ruddy S. Laboratory evaluation of infl ammation. Textbook of Rheumatology. Philadelphia, 5th Ed, 1996:799-805.
Reinhart WH, Nagy C. Albumin aff ects erythrocyte aggregation and sedimentation. Eur J Clin Invest 1995;25:523-528.
Cankurtaran M, Ulger Z, Halil M, Yavuz BB, Onal IK, Unal S, Ariogul S. How to assess high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in elderly? Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2010;50(3):323-326.
Fincher RME, Page MI. Clinical signifi cance of extreme elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:1581-.
Wyler DJ. Diagnostic implications of markedly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate: a reevaluation. South Med J 1977;70:1428-1430.
Collares GB, Vidigal PG: Recomendac,o˜es para o uso da velocidade de hemossedimentac,a˜o. Rev Med Minas Gerais 2004, 14(1), 52-57.
Nilton Salles RN, Freire de Carvalkho J, Shoenfeld J. Screening tests for infl ammatory activity: applications in rhumatology. Mod Rheumatology 2009;19:469-477.
van den Hoogen HMM, Koes BW, van Eijk JTM. On the accuracy of history, physical examination, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in diagnosing low back pain in general practice. Spine 1995;3:318-327.
Selker RG, Wilder BL. Th e erythrocyte sedimentation rate: an interface between science and the law. Surg Neurol 1995;43:290-295.
Th omas NG. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, plasma viscosity and Creactive protein in clinical practice. Br J Hos Med 1997;58:521-523.
Toshihiro M, Yoshiaki K, Jinju N, Atsushi K, Yoshito E, Shigeto T. Comparison of composite disease activity indices for rheumatoid arthritis. Mod rheumatol 2011;21:134-143.
Aletaha D, Smolen J. Th e simplifi ed disease activity index (SDAI) and the clinical disease activity index (CDAI): A review of their usefulness and validity in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2005;23(Suppl 39):100-108.
Martinez-Taboada VM, Blanco R, Armona J, Uriarte E, Figueroa M, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Rodriguez-Valverde V. Giant cell arteritis with an erythrocyte sedimentation rate lower than 50. Clin Rheumatol 2000;19(1):73-75.
Danesh J, Collins R, Peto R, Lowe GD. Haematocrit, viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate: meta-analyses of prospective studies.
of coronary heart disease. Eur Heart J 2000;21(7):515-20. 21. Wood P. Th e erythrocyte sedimentation rate in diseases of the heart. Quart J Med 1936;29:11-15.
Linskens RK, van Bodegraven AA, Schoorl M, Tuynman HA, Bartels P. Predictive value of infl ammatory and coagulation parameters in the course of severe ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci 2001;46(3):644-648.
Bodelier AG, Masclee AA, Bakker JA, Hameeteman WH, Pierik MJ. Azathioprine induced pneumonitis in a patient with ulcerative colitis. J Crohns Colitis 2009;3(4):309-12.
Paakkonen M, Kallio MJ, Kallio PE, Peltola H. Sensitivity of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in childhood bone and joint infections. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2010;468(3):861-866.
Robertson JFR, Pearson D, Price MR, Selby C, Pearson J, Blamey RW, Howell A. Prospective assessment of the role of fi ve tumour markers in breast cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1991;33:403-410.
Cheung KL, Robertson FR. Objective measurement of remission and progression in metastatic breast cancer by the use of serum tumour markers. Minerva Chir 2003;58(3):297-303.
Price MR. High molecular weight epithelial mucins as markers in breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1988;24:1799-1804.
Robertson JFR, Pearson D, Price MR, Selby C, Blamey RW, Howell A. Objective measurement of therapeutic response in breast cancer using tumour markers. Br J Cancer 1991;64:757-763.
Cantwell B, Fennelly JJ, Jones M. Evaluation of follow-up methods to detect relapse mastectomy in breast cancer patients. Ir J Med Sc 1982;151:1-5.
Breast Specialty Group of the British Association of Surgical Oncology. Th e guidelines for the management of metastatic bone disease in breast cancer in the United Kingdom. Eur J Surg Oncol 1999;25:3-23.
Robertson JFR, Whynes DK, Dixon A, Blamey RW. Potential for cost economics in guiding therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1995;72:174-177.
Ucci G, Riccardi A, Luoni R. Presenting features of monoclonal gammopathies: an analysis of 684 newly diagnosed cases. Cooperative Group for the Study and Treatment of Multiple Myeloma. J Intern Med 1993;234:165-173.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top