BK-virus (BKV) – structure, epidemiology and pathogenesis
More details
Hide details
Department of Virology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Corresponding author
Dorota Polz   

Department of Virology, Medical University, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2013;7(2):90-92
The number of cancers is constantly growing. An important role in the etiology of many of them is played by aviral factor – by oncogenic viruses. This group of viruses, according to many researchers, also includes the BK virus (BKV). The article describes the structure of the virus, current epidemiological situation, and modes of transmission. It also explains the BKV induced oncogenesis and the role of the virus in the development of cancer.
Gardner SD, Field AM, Coleman DV, Hulme B. New human papovavirus(B.K.) isolated from urine after renal transplantation. Lancet. 1971;1:1253–1257.
Frisque RJ, Bream GL, Cannella MT. Human polyomavirus JC genome. J Virol. 1984; 51: 458–469.
Johne R, Buck CB, Allander T, Atwood WJ, Garcea RL, Imperiale MJ. et al. Taxonomical developments in the family Polyomaviridae. Arch Virol 2011; 156: 1627–1634.
Imperiale MJ, Major EO. Polyomaviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howeley PM, eds. Fields Virology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams&Wilkins, 2007.p. 2263–2298.
Yogo Y, Sugimoto Ch, Zhong S, Homma Y. Evolution of the polyomavirus: epidemiological, anthropological and clinical implications. Rev Med Virol. 2009; 19: 185–199.
Zhong S, Randawa PS, Ikegaya H, Chen Q, Zheng HY, Suzuki M. et al. Distribution patterns of BK polyomavirus (BKV) subtypes and subgroups in American, European and Asian populations suggest comigration of BKV and the human race. J Gan Virol. 2009; 90: 144–152.
Ikegaya H, Saukko PJ, Tertti R, Metsarinne KP, Carr MJ, Crowley B. et al. Identification of genomic subgroup of BK polyomavirus spread in European m populations. J Gen Virol. 2006; 87: 3201–3208.
Walker DL, Padgett BL. The epidemiology of human polyomaviruses. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1983; 105: 99–106.
Siguier M, Sellier P, Bergmann J-F. BK-virus infections: A literature review. Medecine et maladies infectieuses. 2012; 41: 181–187.
Van Aalderen MC, Heutinck KM, Huisman C, ten Berge IJM. BK virus infection in transplant recipients: Clinical manifestations, treatment options and the immune response. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 2012; 70: 172–183.
Tognon M. High prevalence of BK poliyomavirus sequences in Human papillomavirus-16-positive precancerous cervical lesions. J Med Virol. 2011; 83: 1770–1776.
Boothpur R, Brennan DC. Human polyoma viruses and disease with emphasis on clinical BK and JC. J Clin Virol. 2010; 47: 306–312.
Neirynck V, Claes K, Naesens M, De Wever L, Pirenne J, Kuypers D. Renal cell carcinoma in the allograft: what is the role of Polyomavirus? Case Rep Nephrol Urol. 2012; 2: 125–134.
Bennett S, Broekema N, Imperiale M. BK polyomavirus: emerging pathogen. Microbes and Infection 2012; 14: 672–683.
Egli A, Infanti L, Dumoulin A, Buser A, Samaridis, Stebler C, Gosert R. et al. Prevalence of polyomavirus BK and JC infection and replication in 400 healthy blood donors. J Infect Dis. 2009; 199: 837–846.
Raeesi N, Gheissari A, Akrami M, Moghim S. Urinary BK virus excretion in children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Int J Prev Med. 2012; 3: 402–407.
Chatterjee M, Weyandt TB, Frisque RJ. Identification of archetype and rearranged forms of BK virus in leukocytes from healthy individuals. J Med Virol. 2000; 60: 353–362.
Reploeg MD, Storch GA, Clifford DB. BK virus: a clinical review. Clin Infct Dis 2001; 33: 191–202.
Jin L, Gibson P., Booth JC, Clewly JP. Genomic typing of BK virus in clinical specimens by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products. J Med Virol. 1994; 41: 11–17.
Kalvatchev Z, Slavov S, Shtereva M, Savova S. Reactivation of Polyomavirus hominis 1 (BKV) during pregnancy and the risk of mother-to-child transmission. J Clin Virol. 2008; 43: 328–329.
Bhattacharjee S, Chakraborty T. High reactivation of BK virus variants in Asian Indians with renal disorders and during pregnancy. Virus Genes 2004; 28: 157–168.
Jeffers LK, Madden V, Webster-Cyriaque J. BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implication for transmission. Virology 2009; 394: 183–193.
Konietzny R, Fischer R, Ternette N, Wright C, Turney B, Chakera A. Detection of BK virus in urine from renal transplant subjects my mass spectrometry. Clin Proteomics. 2012; 9: 4.
Schowalter R, Reinhold W, Buck C. Entry tropism of BK and Merkel cell polyomaviruses in cell culture. PLoS One. 2012; 7: 42181.
Drachenberg CB, Papadimitriou JC, Ramos E. Histologic versus molecular diagnosis of BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy: a shifting paradigm? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 1: 374–379.
Tong CYW, Hilton R, MacMohon EME, Brown L, Pantelidis P, Chrystie IL. Monitoring the progress of BK virus associated nephropathy in renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004; 19: 2598–2605.
Hoffman NG, Cook L, Atienza EE, Limaye AP, Jerome KR. Marked variability of BK virus load measurement using quantitative realtime PCR among commonly used assays. J Clin Microbiol. 2008; 46: 2671–2680.
Pang XL, Doucette K, LeBlanc B, Cocfield SM, Preiksaitis JK. Monitoring of polyomavirus BK virus. Viruria and viremia in renal allograft recipients by use of quantifitative real-time PCR assay: one-year prospective study. J Clin Microbiol. 2007; 45: 3568–3573.
Dropulic LK, Jones RJ. Polyomavirus BK infection in blood and marrow transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008; 41: 11–18.
Held TK, Biel SS, Nitsche A. et al. Treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis and simultaneous CMV reactivation with cidofovir. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000; 26: 347–50.
Naumnik B, Kowalewska J, Zalewski G, Charkiewicz R, Myśliwiec M. The Status of BK Polyomavirus Replication in Adult Renal Transplant Recipients in Northeastern Poland Transplant Proc. 2011; 43: 2976–84.
Cesaro S, Hirsch HH, Faraci M, Owoc-Lempach J, Beltrame A, Tendas A. et al. Cidofovir for BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis: a retrospective study. Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 49: 233–240.
Gonzalez-Fraile MI, Canizo C, Caballero D. et al. Cidofovir treatment of human polyomavirus-associated acute haemorrhagic cystitis. Transpl Infect Dis 2001; 3: 44–46.
Bohl DL, Brennan DC. BK virus nephropathy and kidney transplantation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007; 2: 36–37.
Comar M, Bonifacio D, Zanconati F, Di NApoil M, Isidoro E, Martini F. et al. High prevalence of BK poliyomavirus sequences in Human papillomavirus-16-positive precancerous cervical lesions. J Med Virol. 2011; 83: 1770–1776.
Fraase K., Hart J., Wu H., Pang X., Ma L., Grant F. et al. BK virus bas a potential co-factor for HPV in the development of cervical neoplasia. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2011; 42: 130–134.
Fioriti D, Videtta M, Mischitelli M, Degener AM, Russo G, Giordano A. et al. Human poliomavirus BK: potential role in cancer. J Cell Physiol. 2005; 204: 402–406.
Hachana M, Amara K, Ziadi S, Gacem RB, Korbi S, Trimeche M. Investigation of human JC and BK polyomaviruses in breast carcinomas. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 133: 969–977.
Abol-Enein H. Infection: is it a cause of bladder cancer?, Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 2008; 218: 79–84.
Palmieri A, Carinci F, Martinelli M, Spinelli G, LoMuzio L, Rubini C. et al. Absence of simian virus 40, BK, and JC polyomavirus DNA in squamous cell carcinoma limited to the oral cavity. Head and Neck 2010.
White MK, Khalili K. Signaling pathways and polyomavirus oncoproteins: Importance in malignant transformation. Gene Ther Mol Biol. 2004; 8: 19–30.
Tognon M, Corallini A, Martini F, Negrini M, Barbanti-Brodano G. Oncogenic transformation by BK virus and association with human tumors. Oncogene 2003; 22: 5192–5200.
Imperiale M. Oncogenic transformation by the human polyomaviruses. Oncogene 2001; 20: 7917–7923.
Corallini A, Tognon M, Negrini M, Barbanti-Brodano G. Evidence for BK Virus as a Human Tumor Virus. In: K. Khalili and G. L. Stoner (eds.). Human Polyomaviruses: Molecular and Clinical Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2002, New York, USA.
White MK, Khalili K. Polyomaviruses and human cancer: Molecular mechanisms underlying patterns of tumorigenesis. Virology 2004; 324: 1–16.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top