REVIEW PAPER
Mechanism of action of triclosan as an endocrine-disrupting chemical with its impact on human health – literature review
 
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Chair and Department of Epidemiology and Clinical Research Methodology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Marcela Maksymowicz   

Chair and Department of Epidemiology and Clinical Research Methodology, Radziwiłłowska 11, 20-080 Lublin, Poland
 
 
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ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective:
Triclosan is a synthetic, aromatic organic chemical compound with antimicrobial properties. Due to its wide application as a preservative in cosmetics, antiperspirants, plastics, or surgical sutures, various mechanisms of TCS action on the human body are described. The study focus on the analysis of antimicrobial properties, effects on metabolism, immunity and the endocrine system, as well as carcinogenesis.

Review methods:
The latest literature available on 13 June 2021 was reviewed by using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. There were 34 papers selected for analysis after reading the abstracts, which met the assumed criteria.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Triclosan can be used as an antimicrobial against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, over-exposure to TCS can also contribute to the acquisition of resistance in bacteria. Interestingly, triclosan as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) might disrupt thyroid, ovarian, or testis homeostasis, having a potential impact on reproductive health. TCS via an estrogen receptor signaling pathway can raise estrogen and progesterone secretion and promote development of hormone-dependent neoplasms, such as breast and ovarian cancer. The chemical has also potential to induce cell proliferation of prostate cancer cells. On the other hand, it contributes to apoptosis in Burkitt lymphoma-derived cells, which means that TCS can have antitumour properties.

Summary:
Triclosan is a commonly usean antimicrobial agent in medical and consumer care products. Due to its unclear impact on organisms, further studies are necessary regarding both the use of TCS as an antibacterial agent and possible harmful effects on the human body.

 
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