Introduction and objective:
Hyperlipidemia is considered as a serious communal problem in developed countries, caused by an excess level of cholesterol in blood circulation. It leads to chronic illness and even death in human beings. As the currently available drugs cause unexpected side-effect, the aim of this study is to concentrate on naturally occurring flavonoids which can potentially provide defensive and therapeutic effects in atherosclerosis diseases, and investigate the hypolipidemic effect of rutin on Triton WR-1339 triggered hyperlipidemia in a rat blood sample.

Material and methods:
Rats were randomly prearranged into five different groups of five rats each. Group-I was the non-disease control and administered normal saline. Group-II was the atherogenic control, administered Triton WR 1339 (200 mg/kg BW). Group-III was standard and received Atorvastatin. The last two groups (IV, V) were tested (I&II) by administering administered Rutin (40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg) orally. The test material (I&II) and the standard drug were administered for seven days. After the last dose, blood samples were collected and the lipid levels estimated in the blood samples.

Rats treated with rutin flavonoid at a dose of 40 mg/kg & 80mg/kg exhibited a reduction in Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL). Rutin also increases the High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), compared with control rats. Rutin treated rats exhibited dose-dependent hypolipidemic activity. The protection percentage of rutin against hyperlipidemia was observed as 41.89%, 55.57% whereas the atorvastatin treated group protection was observed at 60.63%.

The results of the study revealed that rutin showed a significant hypolipidemic effectiveness on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

Livingston Raja NR, Aathira Ravindran Nair, Swarnabala Senthilpandian, Vijay Ravi. Hypolipidemic action of Rutin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. J Pre-Clin Clin Res. 2021; 15(2): 51–55. doi: 10.26444/jpccr/136231
Niharika Verma. Introduction to hyperlipidaemia and its treatment. A Review. Int J Curr Pharm Res. 2016; 9(1): 6–14. 10.22159/ijcpr/16616.
Jorgensen T, Capewell S, Prescott E, Allender S, Sans S, Zdrojewski T. Population-level changes to promote cardiovascular health. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013; 20(3): 409–21.
Licto Thomas, Jagadish Vasudev Kamath. Evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Capsicum frutescens extract. Int J Curr Pharm Res. 2017; 9(3): 165–168.
Ahmed Rahma, Abu-Raghif, Hayder B, Sahib, Saba Naseer, Abbas. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Vitex agnus castus extracts in Mice. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2015; 35(2): 120–125.
Pankaj Kumar, Shailendra Sharma. Hypolipidemic Potential of Herbal Drugs Lagenaria siceraria & Carica papaya and Cow Urine: A Review Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2017; 42(2): 46: 255–264.
Suzuki T, Morishita T. Chapter twenty seven – Bitterness Generation, Rutin Hydrolysis, and Development of Trace Rutinosidase Variety in Tartary Buckwheat. 2016: 345–353.
Heba Mohamed Abdou, Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef, Alsayeda Alsayed Newairy. Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidaemia, DNA fragmentation, neurotransmitters inhibition, oxidative damage, histopathological and morphometric changes: the protective role of soybean oil. The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology. 2018; (79)51: 1–12.
Rao KS. Acute Oral Toxicity. BEMS Reports. 2018; 4(2):39–41. 10.5530/bems.4.2.10.
Mukesh S, Sikarwar Patil MB. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Salacia chinensis root extracts in triton-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012; 44(1): 88–92. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.91875.
Sikarwar MS, Mrityunjaya B. Patil. Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Pongamia pinnata Leaf Extracts. Turk J Pharm Sci. 2014; 11(3): 329–338.
Swati Penumarthy, Gautami S. Penmetsa, Satheesh Mannem. Assessment of serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in periodontitis patients J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2013; 17(1): 30–35.
Shraideh Ziad, Al-Awaida Wajdy, Badran Darwish. Effects of cigarette smoking on histology of trachea and lungs of albino rat. Res Opin Anim Vet Sci. 2013; 3(10): 356–362.
Alexandros Tsoupras, Ronan Lordan, Ioannis Zabetakis. Inflammation, not Cholesterol, Is a Cause of Chronic Disease. Nutrients. 2018; 10(5): 1–38.
Obeagu EI. Lipoprotein implication and Laboratory estimation. Int J Adv Res Biol Sci. 2016; 3(6): 123–130.
Antonio Blanco, Gustavo Blanco, in Medical Biochemistry. 1st Edition. Argentina. 2017.
Kieran F. Docherty, Sandosh Padmanabhan. Handbook of Pharmacogenomics and Stratified Medicine. Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK. 1st edition. 2014.
Mireille Ouimet, Tessa J. Barrett, Edward A. HDL and Reverse Cholesterol Transport Basic Mechanisms and Their Roles in Vascular Health and Disease. Circulation Research. 2019; 124(10): 1505–1518. ht t p// /10.1161/CIRCR ESA H A.119.312617.
Manni A, Quarde A. Signs in Disorders of Lipid Metabolism and Obesity. In Endocrine Pathophysiology. Springer, Cham. 2020: 151–170.
Huanbiao MO, Rayna Jeter, Andrea Bachmann, Sophie T. Yount, Chwan-Li Shen, Hoda Yeganehjoo. The Potential of Isoprenoids in Adjuvant Cancer Therapy to Reduce Adverse Effects of Statins. Front. Pharmacol. 2019; 9(1515): 1–19. http// 10.3389/fphar.2018.01515.
Agrawal S, Zaritsky J, Fornoni A. Dyslipidaemia in nephrotic syndrome: mechanisms and treatment. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2018; 14: 57–70.
Heqian Kuang, Fang Yang, Yan Zhang, Tiannan Wang, Guoxun Chen. The Impact of Egg Nutrient Composition and its Consumption on Cholesterol Homeostasis. Cholesterol. 2018: 1–22.
Ghassan F. Shattat. A Review Article on Hyperlipidaemia: Types, Treatments and New Drug Targets. Biomed & Pharmacol J. 2014; 7(2): 399–409.
Sandra Kunnen, Miranda Van Eck. Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase: old friend or foe in atherosclerosis? J Lipid Res. 2012; 53(9): 1783–1799.
Sheneni VD, Shaibu IE, Okpe JM. In-vivo biological effect of Carica papaya leaf extracts on P-407 induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. MOJ Food Process Technol. 2018; 6(4): 409‒412.
Titin Andri, Wihastuti, Djanggan Sargowo, Teuku Heriansyah, Yasmin Eka Aziza, Dyah Puspitarini, Amalina Nur Iwana, Lucky Astrida Evitasari. The reduction of aorta histopathological images through inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation in hypercholesterolemia rattus norvegicus treated with polysaccharide peptide of Ganoderma lucidum. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2015; 18(5): 514–519. PMC4475661.
Abeer Y, IbrahimSaber F Hendawy, Ahmed AA, Elsaye, Elsayed A Omer. Evaluation of hypolipidemic Marrubium vulgare effect in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidaemia in mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2016; 9(5): 453–459.
Yan Zhang, Liying Wu, Zhongsu Ma, Jia Cheng, Jingbo Liu. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice. Molecules. 2016; 21(7): 1–12. 10.3390/molecules21010007.