REVIEW PAPER
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory and systemic autoimmune disease that affects peripheral joints leading to joint degradation, pain, deformities, decreased activities of daily living, and sedentary lifestyle, resulting in secondary sarcopenia. Osteoarthritis (OA), in turn, is a multifactorial disease associated with joint degeneration and impairment of the musculoskeletal system as a whole, affecting joint movement and stability. In both pathologies, there is loss of muscle mass and functional impairment, and physical exercise is a therapeutic alternative to minimize these consequences. The aim of the review is to demonstrate the effects of different physical exercise modalities on muscle mass loss in murine models of OA and RA

Materials and method:
The databases used were PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, LILACS, and Google Scholar. The review included studies which induced experimental models of OA or RA in rats or mice; used any exercise modality as an intervention; and analyzed some quantitative muscle histomorphometric measurs. The search strategy included all keywords on the topic identified in previous research and adapted for each database. Studies published in any language and in any year were included. An analysis of the studies was performed by two independent reviewers and data were extracted from the articles using tools developed by the reviewers.

Results:
After completing the definitive search in the databases, 193 studies were found, of which only 2 were included in this review, one addressing the effects of resistance exercise in rats with RA, and another using aerobic exercise to treat rats with OA.

Conclusion:
Treatment with different forms of physical exercise contributed to attenuation of muscle mass loss in animal models of OA and RA.

Thaís Caroline Schnaufer, Marcela Aparecida Leite, Camila Amaral Coracini, Patrícia Oehlmeyer Nassar, Alberito Rodrigo de Carvalho, Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: a systematic review. J Pre-Clin Clin Res. 2022; 16(1): 16–20. doi: 10.26444/jpccr/145974
 
REFERENCES (30)
1.
Smolen JS, Aletaha D, Barton A, Burmester GR, Emery P, Firestein GS, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis. Primer. 2018; 4: 01–23. https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-319-59963-2_3.
 
2.
Smolen JS, Aletaha D, McInnes IB. Rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 2016; 388: 2023–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-....
 
3.
Little RD, Prieto-Potin I, Pérez-Baos S, Villalvilla A, Gratal P, Cicuttini F, et al. Compensatory anabolic signaling in the sarcopenia of experimental chronic arthritis. Sci Rep 2017; 7: 6311. https://doi. org/10.1038/s41598-017-06581-6.
 
4.
Casanova-Vallve N, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Filer A, Hardy RS, Greenhaff PL, Chapman V. Skeletal muscle dysregulation in rheumatoid arthritis: Metabolic and molecular markers in a rodent model and patients. PLoS One 2020; 15: e0235702. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa.... pone.0235702.
 
5.
Steinz MM, Santos-Alves E, Lanner JT. Skeletal muscle redox signaling in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Sci 2020; 134: 2835–50. https://doi. org/10.1042/CS20190728.
 
6.
Loeser RF, Goldring SR, Scanzello CR, Goldring MB. Osteoarthritis: A disease of the joint as an organ. Arthritis Rheum 2012; 64: 1697–707. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.34....
 
7.
Shorter E, Sannicandro AJ, Poulet B, Goljanek-Whysall K. Skeletal muscle wasting and its relationship with osteoarthritis: a mini-review of mechanisms and current interventions. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2019; 21: 40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11926....
 
8.
Santos MLADS, Gomes WF, Queiroz BZ de, Rosa NM de B, Pereira DS, Dias JMD, et al. Desempenho muscular, dor, rigidez e funcionalidade de idosas com osteoartrite de joelho. Acta Ortop Bras 2011; 19: 193–7.
 
9.
Pope JE. Management of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis. RMD Open 2019-001084.
 
10.
Duarte V de S, Santos ML dos, Rodrigues K de A, Ramires JB, Arêas GPT, Borges GF. Exercícios físicos e osteoartrose: uma revisão sistemática. Fisioter Em Mov 2013; 26: 193–202. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103- 51502013000100022.
 
11.
Rocha TC, Dos Santos Ramos P, Dias AG, Martins EA. The effects of physical exercise on pain management in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review with metanalysis. Rev Bras Ortop 2020; 55: 509–17. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0039....
 
12.
Cooney JK, Law R-J, Matschke V, Lemmey AB, Moore JP, Ahmad Y, et al. Benefits of exercise in rheumatoid arthritis. J Aging Res 2011; 2011: 681640. https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/6....
 
13.
Furlanetto Jr R, Souza A de P, Oliveira AA de, Nunes PRP, Michelin MA, Chica JEL, et al. Acute resistance exercise reduces increased gene expression in muscle atrophy of ovariectomised arthritic rats. Menopausal Rev 2016; 4: 193–201. https://doi.org/10.5114/pm.201....
 
14.
Sharif S, Thomas JM, Donley DA, Gilleland DL, Bonner DE, McCrory JL, et al. Resistance exercise reduces skeletal muscle cachexia and improves muscle function in rheumatoid arthritis. Case Rep Med 2011; 2011: 205691. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/2....
 
15.
Mikkelsen UR, Dideriksen K, Andersen MB, Boesen A, Malmgaard-Clausen NM, Sørensen IJ, et al. Preserved skeletal muscle protein anabolic response to acute exercise and protein intake in well-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Res Ther 2015; 17: 271. https:// doi.org/10.1186/s13075-015-075....
 
16.
Fang L, Lin L, Lv Y, Huang Z, Lin X, Wang X, et al. The mechanism of aerobic exercise combined with glucosamine therapy and circUNK in improving knee osteoarthritis in rabbits. Life Sci 2021; 275: 119375.
 
17.
Bartels EM, Juhl CB, Christensen R, Hagen KB, Danneskiold-Samsøe B, Dagfinrud H, et al. Aquatic exercise for the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 2016: CD005523. https://doi.org/10.1002/146518....
 
18.
Iversen MD. Rehabilitation interventions for pain and disability in osteoarthritis: A review of interventions including exercise, manual techniques, and assistive devices. Orthop Nurs 2012; 31: 103–8. https:// doi.org/10.1097/NOR.0b013e3182....
 
19.
Oliveira AA, Martins FM, Júnior RF, Michelin M, Sousa AP, Nunes PR, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis-increased gene expressions in muscle atrophy are restored back to control as a response to acute resistance exercise. Rev Bras Ciência e Mov 2018; 26: 24–33. https://doi.org/10.18511/rbcm. v26i2.7928.
 
20.
Assis L, Almeida T, Milares LP, dos Passos N, Araújo B, Bublitz C, et al. Musculoskeletal atrophy in an experimental model of knee osteoarthritis: The effects of exercise training and low-level laser therapy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2015; 94: 609–16. https://doi.org/10.1097/ PHM.0000000000000219.
 
21.
Lange E, Kucharski D, Svedlund S, Svensson K, Bertholds G, Gjertsson I, et al. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in older adults with rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2019; 71: 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.23....
 
22.
Vincent KR, Vincent HK. Concentric and eccentric resistance training comparison on physical function and functional pain outcomes in knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2020; 99: 932–40. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.00....
 
23.
Brennan FM, McInnes IB. Evidence that cytokines play a role in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest 2008; 118: 3537–45. https://doi. org/10.1172/JCI36389.
 
24.
Wojdasiewicz P, Poniatowski ŁA, Szukiewicz D. The role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Mediators Inflamm 2014; 2014: 561459. https://doi. org/10.1155/2014/561459.
 
25.
Wang T, He C. Pro-inflammatory cytokines: The link between obesity and osteoarthritis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2018; 44: 38–50. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2018....
 
26.
Adams V, Mangner N, Gasch A, Krohne C, Gielen S, Hirner S, et al. Induction of MuRF1 is essential for TNF-α-induced loss of muscle function in mice. J Mol Biol 2008; 384: 48–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jmb.2008.08.087.
 
27.
Andonian BJ, Bartlett DB, Huebner JL, Willis L, Hoselton A, Kraus VB, et al. Effect of high-intensity interval training on muscle remodeling in rheumatoid arthritis compared to prediabetes. Arthritis Res Ther 2018; 20: 283. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13075....
 
28.
Mangner N, Linke A, Oberbach A, Kullnick Y, Gielen S, Sandri M, et al. Exercise training prevents TNF-α induced loss of force in the diaphragm of mice. PLoS One 2013; 8: e52274. https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0052274.
 
29.
Martins JB, Mendonça VA, Aguiar GC, Fonseca SF da, Santos JM dos, Tossige-Gomes R, et al. Effect of a moderate-intensity aerobic training on joint biomarkers and functional adaptations in rats subjected to induced knee osteoarthritis. Front Physiol 2019; 10: 1168. https://doi. org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01168.
 
30.
Neves M, Retameiro ACB, Tavares AL de F, Reginato A, Menolli RA, Leal TS da S, et al. Physical exercise and low-level laser therapy on the nociception and leukocyte migration of Wistar rats submitted to a model of rheumatoid arthritis. Lasers Med Sci 2020; 35: 1277–87. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10103-019-02905-2.
 
eISSN:1898-7516
ISSN:1898-2395