Introduction and objective:
Metabolic disorders are associated with a number of negative health consequences. Therefore, the aim of this review was to define the relationships between overweight and obesity, lipid metabolism disorders, hypertension, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, and cognitive functions.

Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge:
Metabolic disorders may be linked to the reduction of cognitive functions, such as memory, abstract reasoning, verbal fluency, attention and psychomotor speed. Obesity may lead to changes in the hippocampus, one of the main structures involved in learning and memory. The evidence reviewed suggests that obesity, by inducing inflammation, leads to the dysfunction of brain structures such as the frontal cortex and corpus callosum involved in plasticity processes and cognitive functions. In addition, obesity has been found to be associated with abnormalities in the white matter and glial cells in the brain, which may also cause reduction in processing speed. It is possible that there is a non-linear relationship between lipids and cognitive function moderated by age and the pro-inflammatory process. Disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism can also lead to cognitive impairment, such as: memory, verbal fluency or abstract reasoning.

Metabolic disorders are associated with a higher risk of developing cognitive impairment. This association can be moderated by additional factors: lifestyle, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory processes, genetic factors, age and education.

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