The P300 event-related brain potential, relationship with functional, familial and chronic subtypes of alcohol dependence
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Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw
Department of Molecular Biology and Translational Research, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
College of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Sandomierz, Poland
Roman Chwedorowicz   

Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2016;10(2):82–86
The results of contemporary studies confirm that the electrophysiological characteristics of alcoholics, such as low P300 amplitude of the Event-Related Potential (ERP), are related with high risk in their offspring, and are considered to be biological endophenotypes of predisposition to develop alcohol use disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in the theta (4–7 Hz) ERP occurring in the P300 response in the resting EEG of alcoholics in comparison to normal age- and gender-matched control subjects. The study included individuals of Polish ancestry with three generations (parents, siblings, spouses, marrying into the family, and children) from families with a positive diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Next, the group of alcoholics was subdivided into five distinct groups, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The control group consisted of 25 unaffected individuals from families who were screened and assessed to be negative for a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The theta band (4–7 Hz) visual ERP occurring in the P300 response in the resting EEG were examined to explore the electrophysiological effects of alcohol on the brain in patients with alcohol addiction. The amplitude and latency of auditory P300 response was recorded in the frontal, central, occipital and temporal regions, in control and alcohol dependent individuals. The amplitude of auditory P300 response in the central areas of the brain was lower in alcoholics in all studied groups, compared to the control subjects, except for the young adult subtype. No statistical difference in the amplitude of P300 potential in the studied brain regions was observed between the young adult subtype, and the control group. Similar P300 amplitude values in the young adult subtype and in the controls, and different values in the remaining alcoholics in the study, allow the differentiation into two subtypes of young alcoholics, based on the P300 amplitude as the biological endophenotype, and provide the background related with causative environmental and genetic factors in alcohol addiction.
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