Selected aspects of osteoporosis prevention
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Cardiology Department with Cardiology Intensive Care Unit, Ministry of the Interior and Administration Hospital, Lublin, Poland
Department of Biophysics, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Magdalena Stachura   

Cardiology Department with Cardiology Intensive Care Unit, Ministry of the Interior and Administration Hospital, Grenadierów 3, 20-331 Lublin, Poland.
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2008;2(1):13–18
Osteporosis affects a large percentage of postmenopausal women and leads to serious complications such as femur neck fracture. The standard of osteoporosis diagnosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which evaluates bone mineral content and after dividing it by measurement area estimates bone mineral density. There are also biochemical indicators evaluated in human serum or urine such as calcium urine concentration, piridinoline, deoksypiridinoline (DPR), and collagene fragments, such as cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTX) and cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), which may be useful for determining the activity of bone formation and resorption processes. They are frequently used for scientifi c purposes, but not in general medical practice. Osteoporosis risk factors include: age over 70 years, low weight (below 40 kg) or body mass index (BMI) below 20, weight loss of more than 10% of total body mass, low physical activity, chronic treatment with glucocorticoids or anti-epileptic drugs, anorexia nervosa, type 1 diabetes mellitus, past gastrectomy, and hyperparathyroidismus. There are also some other conditions which may affect bone metabolism which include: female sex, smoking, cases of fractures in family, a history of ovariectomy, early menopause (before the age of 45), low calcium consumption, hyperthyroidismus, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic alcoholism, excessive vitamin A intake and cola drinks. Also, adequate intake of proteins and macro- and microelements may affect bone metabolism. Some epidemiological studies suggest that higher consumption of soy bean based foods in Asian populations compared to Western populations may be responsible for the low incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Asian women. Soy beans are a rich source of isoflavones, mainly genistein and daidzein, which have both weak estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Isoflavones bind to estrogen receptors in body tissues such as uterine or bones, and some data suggest that they may stimulate osteoblastic activity and bone formation, and also inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. In this way, they may prevent postmenopausal bone loss. The protective effects of other natural substances such as rhizome of Anemarrhena aspheloides or aqueus extract of black tea have also been investigated. This article presents a review of food contents and lifestyle factors which infl uence bone metabolism.
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