Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) – molecular, viral and bacterial concepts
More details
Hide details
Department of Virology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2014;8(2):61–66
Head and neck cancers constitute the sixth most common malignant tumours worldwide, and are one of the majors problems of global public health. In the oral cavity there are several types of oral cancers, but around 90% are squamous cell carcinoma. Many different risk factors play a role in the etiology of head and neck cancer. The aim of this study is presentation from the aspect of molecular, viral and bacterial infection. Knowledge about all factors which influence the development of these malignances is essential for diagnostics and successful treatment.
Małgorzata Polz-Dacewicz   
Department of Virology, Medical University, ul Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
1. Mascolo M, Siano M, Ilardi G, Russo D, Merolla F, De Rosa G, Staibano S. Epigenetic Disregulation in Oral Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(2): 2331–2353. doi: 10.3390/ijms13022331.
2. Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Winn DM, Austin DF, Greenberg RS, Preston-Martin S, et al. Smoking and drinking in relation to oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Res. 1988; 48(11): 3282–3287.
3. American Cancer Society. Global Cancer Facts & Figures 2nd Edition. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2011.
4. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008. GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2008; 127(12): 2893–2911.
5. Wojciechowska U, Didkowska J, Zatoński W. Nowotwory złośliwe w Polsce w 2010r. Cancer in Poland in 2010. Warszawa, Centrum Onkologii Instytut im. Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie, 2012 (in Polish).
6. Majchrzak E, Szybiak B, Wegner A, Pienkowski P, Pazdrowski J, et al. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in young adults: a review of the literature. Radiol Oncol. 2014; 48(1): 1–10.
7. Guha N, Boffetta P, Wunsch FV, Eluf Neto JE, Shangina O, Zaridze D, et al. Oral health and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and esophagus: Results of two multicentric case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 166(10): 1159–1173.
8. Wynder EL, Bross IJ, Day E. Epidemiological approach to the etiology of cancer of the larynx. J Am Med Assoc. 1956; 160(16): 1384–1391.
9. Maier H, Dietz A, Gewelke U, Heller WD, Weidauer H. Tobacco and alcohol and the risk of head and neck cancer. Clin Investig. 1992; 70(3–4): 320–327.
10. Hashibe M, Brennan P, Chuang SC, Boccia S, Castellsauge X, Chen C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: Pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 541–550.
11. Bosetti C, Gallus S, Trichopoulou A, Talamini R, Franceschi S, Negri E, LaVecchia C. Influence of the Mediterranean diet on the risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003; 12: 1091–1094.
12. Pavia M, Pileggi C, Nobile CG, Angelillo IF. Association between fruit and vegetable consumption and oral cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 83: 1126–1134.
13. Freedman ND, Park Y, Subar AF, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A, Abnet C, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and head and neck cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2008; 122(10): 2330–2336.
14. Heck JE, Berthiller J, Vaccarella S, Winn DM, Smith EM, Shan’gina O, et al. Sexual behaviours and the risk of head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Int J Epidemiol. 2010; 39(1): 166–181.
15. Marks MA, Chaturvedi AK, Kelsey K, Straif K, Berthiller J, Schwartz SM, et al. Association of marijuana smoking with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers: pooled analysis from the INHANCE consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014; 23(1): 160–171. doi: 10.1158/1055–9965.
16. Felsher DW. Oncogene addiction versus oncogene amnesia: perhaps more than just a bad habit? Cancer Res. 2008; 1,68(9): 3081–3086. doi: 10.1158/0008–5472.CAN-07–5832.
17. Knudson, A. Mutation and cancer: statistical study of retinoblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1971; 68: 820–823.
18. Khan MH, Mishu MP, Imam ST. Current molecular concept of oral carcinogenesis and invasion. Medicine Today 2010; 22: 38–42.
19. Jiang L, Zeng X, Yang H, Wang Z, Shen J, Bai J, et al. Oral cancer overexpressed 1 (ORAOV1): a regulator for the cell growth and tumor angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2008; 15: 123(8): 1779–1786. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23734.
20. Zhai C, Li Y, Mascarenhas C, Lin Q, Li K, Vyrides I, et al. The function of ORAOV1/LTO1, a gene that is overexpressed frequently in cancer: essential roles in the function and biogenesis of the ribosome. Oncogene. 2014; 23–33(4): 484–494. doi: 10.1038/onc.2012.604.
21. Katoh M. Evolutionary conservation of CCND1-ORAOV1-FGF19-FGF4 locus from zebrafish to human. Int J Mol Med. 2003; 2(1): 45–50.
22. Huang X, Gollin SM, Raja S, Godfrey TE. High-resolution mapping of the 11q13 amplicon and identification of a gene, TAOS1, that is amplified and overexpressed in oral cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2002; 99: 11369–11374.
23. Xia J, Chen Q, Li B, Zeng X. Amplifications of TAOS1 and EMS1 genes in oral carcinogenesis: association with clinicopathological features. Oral Oncol. 2007; 43(5): 508–514.
24. Szukała K, Szyfter K, Kujawski M. Function of tumor suppressor genes in head and neck cancer. Współcz Onkol. 2003; 7(4): 240–246.
25. Watling DL, Gown AM, Coltrera M. Overexpression of P53 in head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 1992; 14: 437–444. doi:10.1002/hed.2880140603.
26. Kalfert D, Celakovsky P, Laco J, Ludvikova M. The Role of Protein p16INK4a in glottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; (Epub ahead of print).
27. Macha MA, Rachagani S, Pai P, Gupta S, Lydiatt WM, Smith RB, et al. MUC4 regulates cellular senescence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through p16/Rb pathway. Oncogene. 2014. doi: 10.1038/onc.2014.102 (Epub ahead of print).
28. Metgud R, Astekar M, Verma M, Sharma A. Role of viruses in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rev. 2012; 6: 164–170.
29. Hillbertz NS, Hirsch JM, Jalouli J, Jalouli M, Sand L. Viral and molecular aspects of oral cancer. Anticancer Res. 2012; 32: 4201–4212.
30. Sand L, Jalouli J. Viruses and oral cancer. Is there a link? Microbes and Infection 2014; 1: 1–8.
31. Syrjänen KJ, Syrjänen SM, Lamberg MA, Pyrhönen S. Human papillomavirus (HPV) involvement in squamous cell lesions of the oral cavity. Proc Finn Dent Soc. 1983; 79(1): 1–8.
32. Syrjänen K, Syrjänen S. Detection of human papillomavirus in sinonasal carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis. Human Pathol. 2013; 44: 983–991.
33. Doorbar J. Papillomavirus life cycle organization and biomarker selection. Dis Markers. 2007; 23(4): 297–313.
34. Scully C. Oral cancer aetiopathogenesis; past, present and future aspects. Med. Oral. Patol Cir Bucal. 2011; 1(16): 306–311.
35. Jalouli J, Ibrahim SO, Sapkota D, Jalouli MM, Vasstrand EN, Hirsch JM, Larsson PA, et al. Presence of human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in oral biopsies from Sudanese patients with regard to toombak use. J Oral Pathol. Med. 2010; 39: 599–604.
36. Jalouli J, Jalouli MM, Sapkota D, Ibrahim SO, Larsson PA, Sand L. Human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma from eight different countries. Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(2): 571–580.
37. Liu JL, Xu ZK, Zhao Y, Jin Y, Dai YM, Yao K. Relationship between human herpesvirus 6 infection and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Chinese Journal of experimental and clinical virology 2003; 17(4): 334–336.
38. Gandolfo S, Carbone M, Carozzo M, Gallo V. Oral lichen planus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection: is there a relationship? J Oral Pathol Med. 1994; 23: 119–122.
39. Nagao Y, Sata M, Itoh K, Tanikawa K, Kameyama T. Quantitative analysis of HCV RNA and genotype in patients with chronic hepatitis C accompanied by oral lichen planus. Eur J Clin Invest. 1996; 26: 495–498.
40. Pushalkar S, Ji X, Yihong Li, Estilo Ch, Yegnanarayana R, Singh B, et al. Comparison of oral microbiota in tumor and non-tumor tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Microbiol. 2012; 12: 144. doi: 10.1186/1471–2180–12–144.
41. Whitmore SE, Lamont RJ. Oral bacteria and cancer. PLoS Pathog. 10(3): 1003933. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003933.
42. Mazzio E, Smith B, Soliman K. Evaluation of endogenous acidic metabolic products associated with carbohydrate metabolism in tumor cells. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2010; 26(3): 177–188. doi: 10.1007/s10565–009–9138–6.
43. Bolz J, Dosá E, Schubert J, Eckert A. Bacterial colonization of microbial biofilms in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Oral Invest. 2014; 8: 409–414. doi 10.1007/s00784–013–1007–2.
44. Anand D, Vineeta S, Mridula S, Royana S, Manoj P. Helicobacter pylori and oral cancer; possible association in a preliminary case control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12: 1333–1336.
45. Mund C, Lyko F. Epigenetic cancer therapy: Proof of concept and remaining challenges. Bioassays 2010; 32(11): 949–957.
46. González-Ramírez I, García-Cuellar C, Sánchez-Pérez Y, Granados-García M. DNA methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. Oral Dis. 2011; 17(8): 771–778. doi: 10.1111/j.1601–0825.2011.01833.x.
47. Marcinkiewicz KM, Gudas LJ. Altered epigenetic regulation of homeobox genes in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Exp Cell Res. 2014; 320(1):128–143. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2013.09.011.
48. Jithesh PV, Risk JM, Schache AG, Dhanda J, Lane B, Liloglou T, Shaw RJ. The epigenetic landscape of oral squamous cell carcinoma. BJC. 2013; 108: 370–379.
49. Mascolo M, Siano M, Ilardi G, Russo D, Merolla F, De Rosa G, Staibano S. Epigenetic disregulation in oral cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(2): 2331–2353.