Neonatal development and central appetite regulation
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The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Gastrointestinal Physiology, Jabłonna, Poland
Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
Stefan Pierzynowski   

Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-064 Lublin, Poland.
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2009;3(2):84–90
Appetite serves to regulate adequate energy intake to maintain metabolic needs. It is regulated by a close interplay between the digestive tract, adipose tissue and the brain. The role of hypothalamus, as part of the brain, in preserving energy homeostasis should be stressed. The hypothalamus can be subdivided into nuclei consisting of collections of neurones with discrete functions (e.g. arcuate nucleus, known as the infundibular nucleus in humans, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, etc.). Neuronal projections between these nuclei, as well as to and from other areas in the brain, enable the hypothalamus to integrate signals from the brain, the peripheral circulation and the gastrointestinal tract. What are these signaling substances and when do they appear? How and when do these projections develop? This review focuses on development of brain mechanisms regulating appetite in neonates, mainly rats and mice.
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