Indices of body composition, energy and macronutrient intakes in young men and women with different physical activity
More details
Hide details
Department of Biology University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Biochemistry University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Sports Medicine, University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland
Anna Kęska   

Marymoncka 34, 00-968 Warszawa, Poland
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2013;7(1):36–39
It has been shown that body mass index (BMI) commonly used in assessing nutritional status provides equivocal results since subjects with normal BMI are often characterized by abnormal body fat and fat free mass. In consequence, it has been suggested that an indices more precise than BMI of body composition should be used for evaluation of nutritional status and risk of malnutrition and/or obesity. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between different indices of body composition and dietary macronutrient intakes in young non-active and active adults. A total of 264 students (136 females and 128 males) participated in the study. Physical activity of 131 subjects (69 males and 62 females) was more than 7 h/week and were classified as active. A total of 133 subjects (59 males and 74 females) with physical activity less than 3 h/week were classified as non-active. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured using standard procedures. Body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) were determined using the bioelectrical impedance method and Tanita equipment. Daily energy and macronutrient intakes were evaluated from four 24-hours recalls concerning two week days and weekend and analyzed using the Dieta 5.0. computerized programme. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was calculated from body fat and fat free mass, and energy intake (EI) to BMR ratio was calculated to identify the under- and over-reporters. There were no differences in BMI between males and females with different physical activity. Both, non-active females and males were characterized by a higher percent of BF compared to those who were non-active. A difference in FFM was observed between active and non-active females. Waist circumference in active males was lower vs. their sedentary counterparts. There were no differences in energy consumption between active and non-active students. Neither daily energy intake nor diet composition were correlated with indices of body composition. Additionally, it was observed that in both active and non-active females and active males underreporting was more pronounced in subjects with normal body fat. The above data possibly suggest that numerous participants were characterized by a distorted body image.
Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA 2004; 291: 2847–2850.
Kyle UG, Genton L, Pichard C. Body composition: what’s new? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2002; 5(4): 427–433.
Kyle UG, Schutz Y, Dupertuis YM, Pichard C. Body composition interpretation. Contributions of the fat-free mass index and the body fat mass index. Nutrition 2003; 19(7–8): 597–604.
Ward LC, Dyer JM, Byrne NM, et al. Validation of a three-frequency bioimpedance spectroscopic method for body composition analysis. Nutrition 2007; 23(9): 657–664.
Duvnjak L, Duvnjak MJ. The metabolic syndrome – an ongoing story. Physiol Pharmacol. 2009; 60(suppl. 7): 19–24.
Ashwell M, Gunn P, Gibson S. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2012; 13(3): 275–286.
Jarosz M, Bułhak-Jachymczyk B. Normy żywienia człowieka. Podstawy prewencji otyłości i chorob niezakaźnych. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, 2008.
Berrigan D, Dodd K, Troiano RP, et al. Patterns of health behavior in U.S. adults. Prev Med. 2003; 36: 615–623.
Haskell WL, Lee I, Pate RR, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2007; 116: 1081–1093.
Kyle UG, Zhang FF, Morabia A, Pichard C. Longitudinal study of body composition changes associated with weight change and physical activity. Nutrition 2006; 22(11–12): 1103–1111.
Malina RM, Geithner CA. Body composition of young athletes. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2011; 5: 262–278.
Szponar L, Wolnicka K, Rychlik E. Album fotografii produktow i potraw. IŻŻ Warszawa 2000.
Garby L, Garrow JS, Jorgensen B, et al. Relation between energy expenditure and body composition in man: specific energy expenditure in vivo of fat and fat-free tissue. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1988; 42(4): 301–305.
World Health Organization. Division of Noncommunicable Diseases. Programme of Nutrition Family and Reproductive Health. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic: report of a WHO consultation on obesity. Geneva; 1998. (WHO/NUT/NCD/98.1).
Abernathy RP, Black DR. Healthy body weights: an alternative perspective. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996; 63(3 suppl.): 448S-451S.
Pescatello LS, VanHeest JL. Physical activity mediates a healthier body weight in the presence of obesity. Br J Sports Med. 2000; 34: 86–93.
Cabrić M, Krakowiak H, Janczak R. The relationship between body constitution and body composition in young women. Fiz Pol. 2002; 2(1); 1–5.
Guo SS, Zeller C, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM. Aging, body composition, and lifestyle: the Fels Longitudinal Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70; 405.
Brevard PB, Ricketts CD. Residence of college students affects dietary intake, physical activity, and serum lipid levels. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;. Brevard PB, Ricketts CD. Residence of college students affects dietary intake, physical activity, and serum lipid levels. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 96(1): 35–38
Briefel RR, Sempos ChT, McDowell MA, et al. Dietary methods research in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: underreporting of energy intake. J Am Clin Nutr. 1997; 65 (suppl. 4): 1203S-1209S.
Johansson L, Solvoll K, Bjǿrneboe GA, Drevon CA. Under- and overreporting of energy intake related to weight status and lifestyle in a nationwide sample. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 68: 266–274.
Rennie KL, Jebb SA, Wright A, Coward WA. Secular trends in underreporting in young people. Br J Nutr. 2005; 93(2): 241–247.
Vance VA, Woodruff SJ, McCargar LJ, Husted J, Hanning RM. Selfreported dietary energy intake of normal weight, overweight and obese adolescents. Public Health Nutr. 2009; 12(2): 222–227.
Costa LC, Vasconcelos FA, Peres KG. Influence of biological, social and psychological factors on abnormal eating attitudes among female university students in Brazil. J Health Popul Nutr. 2010; 28(2): 173–181.
Klingberg S, Hallenberg E, Lorentzon M, Mellstrom D, Ohlsson C,.Klingberg S, Hallenberg E, Lorentzon M, Mellström D, Ohlsson C, Hulthén L. Characteristics of under- and over-reporters of energy intake among 18–20-year-old males: the Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) study. Public Health Nutr. 2008; 11(11): 1117–1123.