RESEARCH PAPER
High-protein diets: are they really safe and effective?
 
More details
Hide details
1
Medical University of Warsaw
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Agnieszka Zielińska   

Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Human Nutrition, Ciołka 27, 01-445 Warszawa, tel. 22 836-09-71, fax 22 836-09-71 w. 21.
 
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2010;4(2):148–153
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
This review summarizes the effects of dietary protein on energy intake and weight loss, as well as its’ effects on a variety of health outcomes in adults. Unusual popularity of high-protein induce scientists to analyze its’ effectiveness and observe health consequences induced by those diets. Short-term studies indicates that high-protein diets improve weight loss and fat loss, but recently conducted long-term studies negate superiority of high - protein diets to mixed diets. Available data indicate that high-protein diets can promote harmful effects. This review focuses on the impact of high-protein diets on weight loss, body composition, cardiovascular risk, glycemic control, renal function and urinary calcium loss.
 
REFERENCES (57)
1.
McMillan-Price J, Petocz P, Atkinson F, et al.: Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2006, 166,1466-1475.
 
2.
Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Smeets A, Nieuwenhuizen A: Sustained protein intake for body weight management. Nutr Bull 2007, 32,22- 31.
 
3.
Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D’Alessio DA: A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003, 88,1617-1623.
 
4.
Farnsworth E, Luscombe ND, Noakes M, Wittert G, Argyiou E, Clifton PM: Effect of a high protein, energy restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nut 2003, 78,31-39.
 
5.
Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C: A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr 2003,133,411-417.
 
6.
Luscombe ND, Clifton PM, Noakes M, Farnsworth E, Wittert G: Effect of a high protein, energy restricted diet on weight loss and energy expenditure after weight stabilization in hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes 2003, 27,582-590.
 
7.
Luscombe ND, Clifton PM, Noakes M, Parker B, Wittert G: Effects of energy restricted diets containing increased protein on weight loss, resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of feeding in type-2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002, 25,652-657.
 
8.
Parker B, Noakes M, Luscombe N, Clifton P: Effect of a high protein, high monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type-2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002, 25,425-430.
 
9.
Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al.: A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med 2003, 348,2074- 2081.
 
10.
Yancy Jr WS, Olsen MK, Guyton JR, Bakst RP, Westman EC: A lowcarbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia. Ann Intern Med 2004, 140,769-777.
 
11.
Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Keogh JB, et al.: Long-term effects of a highprotein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004, 28,661-670.
 
12.
Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, et al.: Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction. A randomized trial. JAMA 2005, 293,43-53.
 
13.
Due A, Toubro S, Skov AR, Astrup A: Effect of normal-fat diets, either medium or high in protein, on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomized 1 year trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004, 28,1283-1290.
 
14.
Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al.: A randomized trial of a lowcarbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med 2003, 348,2082-2090.
 
15.
Smeets A. J., Soenen S., Luscombe-Marsh N. D. et al.: Energy Expenditure, Satiety, and Plasma Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Peptide Tyrosine-Tyrosine Concentrations following a Single High-Protein Lunch. J Nutr 2008, 138, 698-702.
 
16.
Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, et al.: Effects of low-carbohyrate vs low-fat diets and weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2006, 166,285-293.
 
17.
Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, et al.: Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A to Z weight loss study: a randomized trial. JAMA 2007, 297,969-977.
 
18.
Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, Swan PD, et al.: Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr 2006, 83,1055-1061.
 
19.
Sacks F.M., Bray G.A., Carey V. J, et al.: Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 2009, 360(9),859-873.
 
20.
Allick G, Bisschop PH, Ackermans MT, et al.: A low-carbohydrate/ high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004, 89,6193-6197.
 
21.
Hayes MR, Miller CK, Ulbrecht JJ, et al.: A carbohydrate-restricted diet alters gut peptides and adiposity signals in men and women with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 2007, 137,1944-2150.
 
22.
Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, et al.: Comparison of a very lowcarbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight women. J Am Coll Nutr 2004, 23,177-184.
 
23.
Park MI, Camilleri M, O’Connor H, et al.: Effects of different macronutrients in excess on gastric sensory and motor functions and appetite in normal-weight, overweight and obese humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 85,411-418.
 
24.
Lichtenstein AH: Thematic review series: patient-oriented research. Dietary fat, carbohydrate, and protein: effects on plasma lipoprotein patterns. J Lipid Res 2006, 47,1661-1667.
 
25.
Coelho JS, Polivy J, Herman PC: Selective carbohydrate or protein restriction: effects on subsequent food intake and cravings. Appetite 2006, 47,352-360.
 
26.
Tay J, Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, et al.: Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric highcarbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008, 51,59-67.
 
27.
Krauss RM, Blanche PJ, Rawlings RS, et al.: Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr 2006, 83,1025-1031.
 
28.
Noakes M, Foster PR, Keogh JB, et al.: Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2006, 3,7.
 
29.
McAuley KA, Smith KJ, Taylor RW, et al.: Long-term effects of popular dietary approaches on weight loss and features of insulin resistance. Int.
 
30.
J Obes (Lond) 2006, 30(2), 342-349. Meckling KA, O’Sullivan C, Saari D: Comparison of a low-fat diet to a lowcarbohydrate diet on weight loss, body compsition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004, 89,2717-2723.
 
31.
Muzio F, Mondazzi L, Harris WS, et al.: Effects of moderate variations in the macronutrient content of the diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese patients with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 86,946-951.
 
32.
Noble CA, Kushner RF: An update on low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2006, 22(2),153-9.
 
33.
Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, et al.: Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 2005, 142,403-411.
 
34.
Layman DK, Baum JI: Dietary protein impact on glycemic control during weight loss. J Nutr 2004, 134,968S-973S.
 
35.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ: Effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on blood glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2004, 53,2375-2382.
 
36.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Saeed A, et al.: An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78,734-741.
 
37.
Gerhard TG, Ahmann A, Meeuws K, et al.: Effects of a low-fat diet compared with those of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2004, 80,668-673.
 
38.
Stern L, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al.: The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Ann Inter Med 2004, 140,778-785.
 
39.
Sargrad KR, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Boden G: Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 2005, 105,573-580.
 
40.
Thomas DE, Elliott EJ, Baur L: Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007, (3),CD005105.
 
41.
Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Golden JK, et al.: Long-term effects of 2 energy restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body.
 
42.
composition, and metabolism in CALERIE: a 1-y randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 85,1023-1030.
 
43.
Brenner BM, Lawler EV, Mackenzie HS: The hyperfiltration theory: a paradigm shift in nephrology. Kid Int 1996, 49,1774-1777.
 
44.
Eisenstein J, Roberts SB, Dallal G, Saltzman E: High protein weight loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data. Nutr Rev 2002, 0,189-200.
 
45.
Brandle E, Sieberth HG, Hautmann RE: Effect of chronic dietary protein intake on the renal function in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nut 1996, 50,734-740.
 
46.
Knight EL, Meir J, Hankinson SE, at al.: The Impact of Protein Intake on Renal Function Decline in Women with Normal Renal Function or Mild Renal Insufficiency. Ann Intern Med. 2003, 138,460-467.
 
47.
Metges CC, Barth CA: Metabolic Consequences of a High Dietary- Protein Intake in Adulthood: Assessment of the Available Evidence. J Nutr 2000, 130, 886-889.
 
48.
Skov AR, Toubro S, Bulow J, Krabbe K, Parving HH, Astrup A: Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low protein diets in overweight subjects. Int J Obes 1999, 23,1170-1177.
 
49.
Poortmans JR, Dellalieux O: Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes? Int J Sport Nur Exerc Metab 2000, 10,28-38.
 
50.
Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ: A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Eng J Med 1993, 328,833-838.
 
51.
Hess B, Ackermann D, Essig M, Takkinen R, Jaeger P: Renal mass and serum calcitriol in male idiopathic calcium renal stone formers: role of protein intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995, 80,1916-1921.
 
52.
Hiatt RA, Ettinger B, Caan B, Quenenberry Jr CP, Duncan D, Citron JT: Randomized controlled trial of a low animal protein, high fiber diet in the prevention of recurrent calcium oxalate kidney stones. Am J Epidemiol 1996, 144,25-33.
 
53.
Kerstetter JE, O’Brien KO, Caseria DM, et al.: The impact of dietary protein on calcium absorption and kinetic measures of bone turnover in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005, 90,26-31.
 
54.
Clifton PM, Keogh JB, Noakes M: Long-term effects of a high-protein weight loss diet. Am J Clin Nutr 2008, 87,23-29.21.
 
55.
CunninghamW, Hyson D: The skinny on high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets. Prev Cardiol 2006, 9,166-171.
 
56.
Bantle JP, Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AL, et al.: Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2008, 31 (Suppl 1):S61-S78.
 
57.
Bilsborough S, Mann N: A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006, 16,129-152.
 
eISSN:1898-7516
ISSN:1898-2395