Allergy to Hymenoptera venoms
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Chair and Department of Pedagogy and Nursing Didactics, L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland
Student Science Circle, Public Health Department, Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland
Chair and Clinic of Rehabilitation, L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Tuberculosis, L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland
Hanna Trzcinska   

Chair and Department of Pedagogy and Nursing Didactics, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Techników 3, 85-801 Bydgoszcz, Poland
J Pre Clin Clin Res. 2013;7(1):13–18
Objective The aim of this study was to analyze current evidence regarding allergy to Hymenoptera venoms.

Brief review:
The Hymenoptera species, which are most important in the context of venom allergy, include the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris), German wasp (Vespula germanica), and the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Depending on the population, systemic allergic reactions occur in 1.5–8.9% of cases. Every year, anaphylactic reactions cause about 40 deaths in the United States and approximately 100 deaths in Europe. Although venoms of various insects differ in terms of their antigen composition, they can show cross-reactivity. Allergic reactions are classified as local or systemic. The IgE-dependent reaction constitutes the most frequent mechanisms responsible for insect venom hypersensitivity. Diagnosis of hypersensitivity is mostly based on history and positive results of skin tests and/or the presence of specific IgE in serum. Intramuscular injection of adrenaline is the procedure of choice in the case of anaphylactic reaction. Immunotherapy has an established the efficacy in the prevention of an anaphylactic reaction in individuals who are sensitive to Hymenoptera venoms. At present, recombinant antigens are being studied in order to improve the safety and effectiveness of diagnosis and therapy.

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